Persian

About Geographical Research

This Journal is Published in Persian. 
Geographical Research journal is an open-access, online, peer-reviewed journal that has been published by the Afarand Scholarly Publishing Institute. It is a pleasure to announce that the Geographical Research journal has published more than one thousand articles from valuable academic achievements of researchers and experts since 1986 (1365 Hijri). Geographical Research journal aims to produce and promote sciences related to different disciplines of geography, including urban and rural planning, political geography, natural geography, economic geography, and related fields of geography, in order to exchange scientific and research findings between specialists and scientific and research centers both inside and outside Iran.

Owner & Director-in-Charge: Professor Mohammad Hossein Papoli Yazdi

Scientific Supporter: Amir Kabir Research Institute

Publishers: Afarand Scholarly Publishing Institute

Financial Supporter: Amayesh & Tosee Shargh Co.
Publishing Period: 4 Issues per Year
Costs: APC Statement (Persian)

Language: Persian Full-text / English Abstract (250 Words) / English Expanded Abstract (1500 Words)
Social Media: LinkedIn; Research Gate; Telegram

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68 days
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Mohammad Hossein Papoli Yazdi; PhD
Professor of Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Fatemeh Vossoughi; PhD
Associate Editor; Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Scientific Supporters
Amir Kabir Research Institute
Articles

Solutions for Reducing Vulnerability of Vital Arteries of cities to Floods (Case Study: Bojnourd City)

M. Mobasheri , Gh.R. Miri , Z. Sharifinia
Aims: Vital arteries or infrastructures are considered the fundamental foundations and frameworks of any society, encompassing all the necessary facilities and utilities for that community. According to the definition of the Canadian Social Security and Emergency Preparedness Organization, vital infrastructures are interconnected networks, facilities, and informational and physical services related to each other. If disrupted or destroyed, they will significantly impact the health, safety, security, and economy of the society. The aim of this research was to assess the flood risk and evaluate the vital arteries of Bojnourd city..
Methodology: This applied research was conducted in 1402 (Solar Hijri year) with a case study of Bojnourd city. The research is descriptive-analytical in terms of research method and applied in terms of purpose. To propose solutions for reducing the vulnerability of city arteries to floods, the Random Forest algorithm was utilized. After conducting studies, 100 flood-prone points and 100 flood-free maps were identified, and 14 effective factors in flooding, including elevation, slope, direction, precipitation, geology, river density, population density, residential density, distance from floodplains, land use, vegetation cover index, topographic land slope index, and moisture index, were used. The importance of each factor was calculated using the information gain ratio.
Results: According to the results, elevation, precipitation, and land use have a significant impact on flooding in Bojnourd city. Additionally, a study of 676 hectares was identified as having the highest flood risk and 852 hectares with the lowest risk. The results indicated that most of the residential areas have a high risk of flooding.
Conclusion: Proper location of flood control structures, considering the geomorphological characteristics of the region along with afforestation and creating suitable vegetation cover in areas damaged due to human activities, can be another solution to reduce the risk.
 
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An investigation into desirable urban spaces and its role on realization of the theory of the right to the city: a case study of Ahvaz Metropolis

M. Gholami, H. Saberi, Sh. Toghyani, M. Shams
Aims The right to the city requires that the citizens of every city consider the city as their own and take part in the city affairs. Taking into account the indices of the right to the city, studying the urban space desirability indices, this research inetsigates the impact of the urban space desirability indices on realization of the right to the city.
Methodology The research methodology in the present research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical and survey in terms of nature. The statistical population was the population over 15-year-old in Ahvaz City and the sample size was 375 people based on the Cochran's formula. Smart PLS software have been used to analyze the effect of urban space desirability on realization of the right to the city.
Findings The findings of the structural equations model indicate the significance of the effect of the variables on each other. The t values calculated for the research components show a value much bigger than 1.96, which indicates the significance at the 0.01 level. The path coefficients of the components are more than 70%, which indicates a strong relationship between the components.
Conclusion The results of the research show a positive and significant relationship between the urban space desirability indices and the degree of realization of the right to the city in Ahvaz City. Among the urban space desirability indices, the index of comfort and tranquility with a value of 0.87 has the highest coefficient of influence among other indicators and among the indices of the right to the city, the index of physical share is 0.83, and the index of control and ownership has the highest coefficient of influence with 0.80.
Keywords: Urban Space, Public Space, Desirability, Right to the City, Ahvaz Metropolis.
 
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Measuring and evaluating the status of biophilic city indicators(Case study: Mellat and Kouhsangi parks in Mashhad)

Seyed reza Razavian rad, Barat Ali Khapoor
Aims & Backgrounds: Considering the existing situation of the country in terms of green space، water scarcity، environmental pollution، loss of biodiversity and urban habitats and unstable urban ecosystem، and on the other hand، the needs of urban people in connection with nature، it is necessary to think of appropriate measures to prevent the increasing problems and the threats to the health of city dwellers. The purpose of this study is to measure and evaluate the status of biophilic city indicators in Mellat and Kouhsangi parks of Mashhad.
Methodology: The research method is analytical-geodesic and its nature is practical. The method of data collection was documental and geodesic and questionnary. The statistical population of the research were experts and specialists. In order to complete the questionnaire، a non-probability and purposeful sampling method was used، the number of which is 50 people who، in addition to their specialized field، have sufficient knowledge of the city under study. Data analysis was done with SPSS software.
Findings: The results of evaluating the state of Mashhad city (Kouhsangi and Mellat parks) in terms of biophilic city indicators indicated that the state of Mashhad city is in an unfavorable state in terms of biophilic city indicators. The highest average obtained for the index of social life in relation to Koh Sangi Park was 3.49. Also، the lowest average in the index of institutions and biophilic governance was obtained in connection with Mellat Park at the rate of 2.06
Conclusion: The results of evaluating the state of Mashhad city (Kuhsangi and Mellat parks) in terms of biophilic city indicators indicated that the state of Mashhad city is in an unfavorable state in terms of biophilic city indicators.
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Spatial analysis of important cities in ancient Iran by content analysis Method

Saeid Rezvani Kakhki
Aims & Backgrounds: The history of birth and development of ancient cities in Iran has always been one of the most important and critical parts of urban analysis in Iran. What stages of development did the cities of ancient Iran go through in the same time with formation of Greek city-states, roman cities and middle age planted towns?
Methodology: In the present study, due to the lack of valid first-hand historical sources, the content analysis method has been used by present sources. In this research the importance of cities is scored based on the number of repetitions in the historic sources.
Findings: According to historical sources related to urbanization, the names and geographical locations of 143 cities of ancient Iran have been collected. Then the above cities are classified according to spatial location. Analysis of the above data in statistical models shows a significant difference between the scores of cities in different locations. According to the statistical analysis of the central tendency, cities located in the western regions and western borders of the country have the highest score and importance.
Conclusion: The chronicles of the western cities show the economic and cultural relations of the above cities with Byzantine merchants in importing goods on the one hand and exporting mineral resources and metals and some different goods on the other hand for trade with Iran. of the western border regions have testified to the economic and cultural relations of the above cities with Byzantine merchants in importing goods on the one hand and exporting mineral resources and metals and some different goods on the other hand for trade with Iran. Also, due to water shortage and agricultural constraints, Iran has long been a mediator for trade caravans between the West and East.
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Assessing the Natural Hazards of Ilam City with the Approach of Economical and Social Resilience

Ali Mohammad Mirzaei, Mohammadreza Zandmoghaddam, Saeed Kamyabi
Aima: Clarifying resilience against threats essentially means understanding how social, economic, institutional, political, and executive capacities and urban communities contribute to increasing resilience and identifying different dimensions of resilience in cities. This study aimed to assess the economic and social resilience of the city of Ilam against environmental hazards.
Methodology: This research was conducted in 2023 in Ilam city. This study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, the research background was studied to determine the components affecting the resilience of the Ilam city from economic and social perspective, and a 28-item questionnaire was designed using a 5-point Likert scale. Expert judgment was used to assess the questionnaire. The single-sample t-test method was used trough SPSS 24 software to evaluate the findings of the first phase. 30 urban planners were purposively selected. In the next phase, to assess citizens' opinions, four areas of the Ilam city were identified as the four main clusters, and in the next step, the main streets and squares of each area were considered as blocks for the clusters. Sixty individuals were randomly selected. Urban areas of Ilam were ranked based on the level of resilience using the multi-criteria decision-making model (Vikor).
Results: The area 4 is the most socially resilient area in the city of Ilam, and 75% of the areas being relatively socially resilient. Among these areas, only Area 2 has relatively low social resilience. The score of the sub-component of the ability to compensate for damage had a higher weight compared to other components. Area 3 was the most economically resilient area, and only Area 1, due to the density of residents composed of rural migrants with insufficient income, lacked resilience economically.
Conclusion: The city of Ilam had a better economic resilience against environmental hazards than social resilience.
 
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Compilation of branding strategies using the smart city approach based on economic dimensions in the sixth district of Tehran, Yousef Abad neighborhood

Azam Molae, Zeynab Karkeabadi, Abbas Arghan
Aims: This study aimed to develop strategies for branding using the smart city approach based on economic dimensions in the Yusefabad neighborhood located in district 6 of Tehran.
Methodology: This analytical-applied study was conducted in the Yusefabad neighborhood of Tehran in 2023-2024. The research tool was a questionnaire designed based on the economic dimension with sub-components including service and tourism facilities (5 indices), neighborhood unique features and assets (6 indices), transportation services and accessibility (6 indices), urban services and infrastructure (4 indices), city's international status (4 indices), and investment and trade (3 indices). The content and face validity were assessed using the expert panel method. Then, the questionnaire was distributed among 30 urban planners in district 6 of Tehran. The data were analyzed using the independent t-test and Friedman test in SPSS 23.
Findings: The highest mean in the economic dimensions was related to transportation services and accessibility (2.4), while the lowest mean was related to service and tourism facilities with a value of 2.89. The results of component ranking indicated that in the service and tourism facilities index, the components of recreational centers and entertainment venues (0.189) and the status of hotels and hostels (0.189) ranked highest. In the unique features and assets index, unique monuments and buildings (0.062) ranked highest. In the urban services and infrastructure index, the components of urban facility conditions (0.182) and urban equipment status (0.179) ranked highest. In the city's international status index, advertising power (0.210) ranked first. In the investment and trade index, the status of markets and sales centers ranked first.
Conclusion: The economic component with a beta coefficient of 0.438 significantly influences the smart city. The economic status is a significant predictor of the smart city.
 
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Analysis of mutual effects of urban planning system and municipal revenue in Iran

ahmad faraji, H. Sarvari, Sanaz Saeidi Mofrad, Ali akbar sarvari
Abstract
Objectives: Any urban development is dependent on providing development costs and at the same time a place to earn new income for municipalities. Therefore, there is a two-way relationship between the urban development planning system and the revenue system of municipalities. But the existing problem is ambiguity in the place and type of impact of urban planning in relation to municipal income. Most studies have been conducted with the aim of explaining sustainable income criteria, sources and methods. The purpose of this article is to explain the active or passive role of urban planning in providing sustainable urban incomes.
Methodology: The research method is qualitative and the method of qualitative content analysis is used. Using a semi-structured interview with experts in the academic and executive field of urban planning who were selected as a snowball, their opinions were obtained regarding the role of urban planning in sustainable income. Then, the obtained texts were analyzed using open and axial coding.
Findings: In the process of data analysis, two methods of open coding and axial coding were used, which were suggested by Strauss and Corbin. which includes crushing data from interviews and notes, creating concepts, categories and putting categories together in a way that clearly justifies the relationship between categories.
Conclusion: The results of this article show that urban planning is effective in obtaining sustainable urban income in two areas of process and executive products. Of course, this is not a direct effect, but by boosting the urban economy, it provides a stable income.
 
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Proposal of Financing the Revenue System of Municipalities and Proposing a Framework (Case Study: Tehran Municipality)

Fatemeh Vossughi , Gholamhossein Mozaffari, Mohammad Hossein Papoli Yazdi , Hossein Hataminejad

Urban sustainable financing is one of the main challenges faced by politicians and urban planners.  Municipalities are concerned with decreased revenues and controlling their costs on one hand and due to the income limitation, the inability to finance many urban projects on the other hand. Developing countries, including Iran, which have inefficient economies, poor tax systems and lack of mechanisms for citizen participation in the provision of urban costs, municipal revenue system, is drawn mainly to the unstable and unhealthy resources. This problem showed itself mainly in Iran after implementation of the 1980 municipal self-sufficiency policy and especially took place in Tehran more seriously than other cities. The two major challenges of Tehran Municipality Revenue System consist of: Unstable and unhealthy municipal revenue system and failure of Tehran’s Municipality to achieve the financial and monetary markets to cover the costs of the construction of urban infrastructure and urban projects. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the structure. For this reason, this paper has proposed two models to solve these two challenges. Model No. 1 will bring stabilization of municipality’s income and revenue system in long term in form of two patterns as "Controlling, reducing and phasing out unsustainable and unhealthy sources of income" and "managing, improving and increasing the role of sustainable revenue sources". Model No. 2 also focuses on providing new ways in order for Tehran Municipality to gain access to the financial and monetary markets. Data was collected for the period of 2008 to 2014 including codes of Tehran Municipality revenues and the amount of revenue generated by each code. We also conducted structured and semi-structured interviews with 30 specializing experts in the research topic. The results showed that during the study period, 58% of Tehran Municipality’s earned income has been achieved from unstable and unhealthy sources and 20% from relatively stable resources. Only 22% of revenue is obtained from healthy and sustainable resources. So, Tehran Municipal Income System is quite unstable and unhealthy in the present situation. The most important approaches presented in model 1 are: Replacing the Renovation Duties, Value Added Tax, Unused Land and wasteland complications with income derived from fines and other unhealthy sources, using green taxes, very high increase in the building density fine rate, reducing the number of permits granted for density, the use of new rigs charges, create clearances database for building crime offenders, getting out the user fees for municipal services, getting the infrastructure networks ramifications fee, improving relations between governments and municipalities, enabling sub-codes which have low income or zero income, using a combination of taxes, considering the municipal tourism revenues and reforming the structure of municipality’s identifying and collecting taxes. Of the most important approaches presented in model 2, may also include the creation of the Metropolitan Development Fund, taking advantage of the potential of domestic banks, using foreign borrowing, direct-entry of Tehran Municipality to the OTC, and using the potential of financing companies. 

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The Impact Of Open Spaces Designing To Create place Attachment In Residential Complexes (Case study: sheshsad dastgah residential complexes in mashhad city)

Masihallah Masoomi, asma mirkhatib

The correlation between humans and place or "Place Attachment" is the basis of satisfying many of the human needs and also giving meaning to human life. Especially attachment to places that are significant for people, the most notable of which is the residence place. The open spaces between residential buildings are the places that link inhabitants with nature and the place of enjoyment in the instant outdoor space of the house. Therefore, there is a need to review and pay particular attention to the design of open spaces in residential complexes. This paper is trying to identify effective factors in organizing open spaces of residential complexes in order to increase sense of place attachment. This is an applied research and in terms of method, it is descriptive/analytical. Data collection has been done through library study, document study, field study and distribution of questionnaires. The statistical population of this study consists of 100 residents of Sheshsad Dastgah residential complex in Mashhad. In order to analyze the descriptive and inferential statistics of the present study, SPSS software and linear regression have been used. The results of the tests indicate the significance of all factors of the independent variable (open spaces in residential complexes) on the dependent variable (sense of attachment). In each of the indices of open space, the components that create attachment, have the highest impact on index of green spaces, and after that children’s playground, pavements, street furniture, roads and finally sitting spaces. The frameworks designed in this research are practical and can provide frameworks for awareness of the designers toward the impact of open spaces of residential complexes on place attachment of the residents.

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on precipitation climatology of Afghanistan

Mehdi Mostarshed
Daily precipitation data from Aphrodite''s resources with a spatial resolution of 0.25*0.25 degree for 57 years have been used to detect the trend of precipitation in Afghanistan. First of all، monthly، seasonally، and yearly maps and regional mean time series calculated. According to the annual map، mean annual precipitation of the country is about 256 mm. There are two precipitation maxima in Afghanistan، one in eastern part and the other one is north- eastern of the country. Throughout the country precipitation maxima occurs in winter. The trend of time series with validity levels of %95 and %99 were examined by the use of Mann Kendall nonparametric. Trend analysis of annual time series shows no trend
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An Investigation on Finding Appropriate Places for Building Public Parking to Decrease City Traffic (Case Study: Central Area of Isfahan)

Mohsen Saghaei, Zohreh Sadeghi, Shirin Tofigh

Though city life and machining living of human beings has some advantage and facilities, yet it has caused a lot of problems as city heavy traffic, along with unanticipated growth of population and unusual development of cities, on the one side and the increasing number of motor vehicles on the other to reduce the heavy traffic in central city areas,building public parking in appropriate place seems very effective,it helps traffic to run smoothly and using better the streets and passages and this seems the only way to solve the city traffic.In this article after surveying and studying the not passages and streets and the existing public parking in the city centre area and also studying the capacity of the existing parking,regarding the value of demands for parking by applying AHP model and by using polygon drawing by Tiesen and Buffering Method, I have defined appropriate place to build parking, consequently, this research shows that parking situated in the city centre of Isfahan do not have any balancer distribution and should be paid attention to building new public parking.

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Analyzing the Role of Environmental Quality in Tourist Attraction to Rural Touristic Destinations (Case Study: Touristic Rural of Small lavasan Rural District)

Hamdollah Sojasi Qidari, Tahere Sadeghloo

In the comparative market of tourist, attempt for tourist from different destinations is a strategically goal. One method of attracting tourist to destination is attention to preferment of destinations quality. Because tourists are search the destinations whit height quality for rest and pleasure. Therefore in this study, the samples had been selected from 16 rural of small Lavasan rural district from Shemiranat County That has been counted as a Tehran tourism destination. This study is based on practical- explorative methodology from aspect of data gathering and identifying the effective dimensions of rural environmental quality in attraction and tourism development. From aspect of community characters description, this study is descriptive and is analytical from aspect of correlation between destination rural quality of environment with tourism development and attraction. In this study, for data gathering had been used of Library resources and field techniques and methods of observation and questionnaire based on indicators derived from the theoretical framework. For sampling had been used of Cochran formula with 0.05 coefficient error rate that estimated sample community were 384 people. Gained result of data analysis show that tourist had satisfaction from rural quality of environment in all of 4 dimension of environmental quality of tourism (with 0.05 rate of meaningful) and after the semantic quality in first place (with an average of 4.18), Experimental – aesthetic Quality (with 3.49 average) lay on second place. Also, Pierson correlation shows that there are meaningful relations among all dimensions of environmental quality of destination and tourist attractions. Result of regression too; show that most effective dimension is related to Semantic quality with 0.645 and most ineffective dimension is related to ecological quality with 0.241, on tourist attraction to rural tourist destinations. Based on the result of study, it could be said that destinations environmental quality in different aspect is effective on tourist attraction and its improving could be useful for rural in comparative market of tourist attracting and tourist choosing.

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Zoning of Earthquakes Occurred in Fars Province during 1900 to 2010 and Comparison it by Former Researches Findings

Dr Siavosh Shayan , GholamReza Zare
Zonings of seismicity of Fars province in Iran and comparison its’ finding to other researches results is aim of this paper. We used Statistical method for analyzing recorded earthquakes in study area during 110 years (1900 – 2010)، using GIS methods for this zoning. By using USGS seismic data of the region and fault maps، Excel software and ArcGIS، we prepare a seismic risk map of study area. Findings show that during study period we have 1636 earthquakes by 2.5 t0 6.9 magnitude. In the study area about 70 percent of earthquakes were lower than 4.5 magnitudes; maximum of earthquake was for Lar and Arsanjan counties. Earthquake zoning shows that 60 percent of the Fars Province area in inside High level seismicity zone. Comparison between these researches by other researches findings shows that in our zoning، there are vaster areas inside low risk areas، but in past researches there was not low risk zones at all or there were limited areas. Based on this zoning most of population density centers ( such as Shiraz and Lar )، and western parts of the province are inside High level risk of Earth quakes ، but in past researches eastern part of province was inside high level risk zone. It seems that this zoning have higher accuracy، too.
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Impacts of Boundaries Geometry on the Security of Western Boundaries of Iran

Sirus Ahmadi Nohadani , Arezo Alanchari Chavdorchi
International boundaries have been one of the preoccupations of Political Geography since their appearances. The shape and type of boundaries are an important issue in national security and for the offensive or defensive position of countries. Studies have been done and more attention has been paid to the boundaries geometry (convex, concave, directness) in recent decades. Also this study wants to verify the impacts of boundaries geometry on national security. This descriptive and analytical article studies the impact of western boundaries geometry of Iran on national security. Results of research show that concave boundaries play a defensive role and convex boundaries play an offensive one. thus the convex boundaries have significant security sensitivity and attract more human, economic and military resources to preserve their security in order to guarantee the national security.
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An Analyzing of the Physical- Spatial Growth Pattern of Tehran Metropolis

Mahmood Ghadiry, Farzaneh Dasta

The growth pattern of a city is the most critical matters of the recent century. So, recognition of the spatial growth pattern of main cities of regions and countries such as Tehran metropolis is necessary for drawing up suitable policies and achieving sustainable development. In this regard, in the framework of sustainable development and urban smart growth theories, three hypotheses offered about the quality of spatial growth pattern of the Tehran metropolis and then were evaluated in the framework of the analytical-descriptive research method. In this framework, for testing the first hypothesis, the Holdren model was used. For testing the second hypothesis, Gini and Entropy's indexes were used, and for testing the third hypothesis, Moran, Geary and General G indexes were used. The necessary data was collect by librarian method. The results of testing the first hypothesis showed that despite compact and regular growth of the Tehran metropolis during 1335-1355, this city have had a sprawl growth of 75 percent during 1355-1365. But since then this procedure has changed to compact city. In the case of the second hypothesis, the results despite un-confirming this hypothesis, showed that though there are imbalance in population and employment distribution, there are not tend to its increasing. Moreover the results in confirming third hypothesis showed that the Tehran metropolis have had a random development pattern tending to Clustered pattern by forming a hot-spot in its south- south eastern part and a cold spot in its north- north western part. 

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Study of Spatial Justice in the Distribution of Services, with an Emphasis on Urban Management (Case study: the neighborhoods of nineteen district of Tehran)

Hossein Yaghfoori, sajad ghasemi, narges ghasemi

The beginnings of social justice rooted in spatial and environmental justice. Since the civil service is considered as a public good, the estimation and the correct positioning is in the area of urban management, so it cannot deprived some parts of the society. Spatial justice as the fair distribution of urban services and facilities is one of the justice society approaches to achieve a harmonious society and social justice. Lack of proper distribution services make injustice and dissatisfaction among citizens of their location and city managers. The research method is descriptive-analytic. In order to analyze the distribution of municipal services in 19 District of Tehran, Vikor model was used. The results show that the services are not distributed in 19 district of Tehran, so that in terms of spatial equity of presented indicators, North Shariati neighborhood with a score of 0.042 has the highest level of the facilities and services and Shahid Kazemi neighborhood with a score of 1, has the lowest enjoyment of facilities and services of 19 district

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Assessment and Analysis of Sustainability Status in Metropolises, Case Study: All Ten Regions of Tabriz

Alireza Soleimani, Ali Majnouni Toutakhane, Ali Reza Soleimani, Ahmad Aftab

Urban development based on the principles of sustainable development has been one of the main concepts of urbanization in the last decade. The term sustainable urban development means providing the necessary grounds for the balanced and efficient utilization of urban resources so that all citizens can benefit from urban economic, social and environmental infrastructure in accordance with their needs. The aim of this research is to investigate the sustainability status in Tabriz metropolis. This is a descriptive-analytic research. The statistical population of this research is the inhabitants of all ten regions of Tabriz, and 500 individuals over 15 years old are selected as sample size using simple random sampling by the classified method. The validity of the questionnaire was verified by experts and the reliability of the different parts of the questionnaire obtained the score of 0.876 to 0.881 using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Fuzzy TOPSIS Method is used to evaluate the variables in order to assess the sustainability, the model of barometer sustainability is used. Also to infer and testability of data the statistical tests such as Anova test, T test and Tukey and Scheffe tests are used. Drawing of maps related to the stability of Tabriz urban areas has been done using GIS software. According to the results, region 8 is the most sustainable region and region 3 is the most unstable region. Also, all 10 regions of Tabriz with sustainability value of 0.591 are in medium sustainability status. The status of the regions in terms of human welfare and ecosystem well-being was also equal to 0.548 and 0.515 respectively. The results of T and Anova tests also showed that according to the sustainability barometric results, physical, social, economic and environmental dimensions are of the most importance respectively. Tukey and Scheffe tests also demonstrated the stability gap between different dimensions of sustainability. Finally, according to the findings of the research and taking into account the situation of the tens of ten regions of Tabriz, practical suggestions are presented in accordance with different dimensions of sustainable urban development.

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Presentation of a Strategic Model for Achieving Urban Sustainable Development in Mashhad Metropolis

Sona Bikdeli , Sirous Shafaghi , Fatemeh Vossughi
The subject of many urban studies is sustainable development and ideal approach of urban planners and designers in designing sustainable cities is mainly toward a better life and reduction of environmental crises. This article seeks to answer these questions What are the most important issues and problems of instability in the metropolis of Mashhad? What are the most important strategies for achieving a sustainable urban development model in Mashhad metropolis? The purpose of this study is to provide a strategic model for achieving sustainable urban development in Mashhad metropolis. To this end, the concepts and principles of sustainable urban development have been studied. Then, a variety of theories related to the development of urban sustainability including the city boom, compact city and smart city were studied, analyzed and summarized using conceptual analysis method. Finally, the initial conceptual model of the research was presented after reviewing the national documents and identifying the principles of planning. The model points out that in order to achieve sustainable urban development in Mashhad metropolis, the emphasis on a system management dimension with four dimensions of sustainability including physical, social, economic and environmental dimensions is necessary. In a quantitative evaluation of the conceptual model of the research using confirmatory factor analysis, the high path coefficient of environmental sustainability suggests that the most important urban instability problem in Mashhad metropolis is environmental instability. On the other hand, based on the views of the urban management team, presenting a comprehensive and participatory strategy model is the best way to achieve sustainable urban development in the metropolis of Mashhad.
  
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Strategic Planning of Medical Tourism with an Emphasis on Religious Tourism in Mashhad City

Ali Hajinejad, Aliakbar Anabestani, Mohammad Safarian

Medical tourism is a branch of health tourism that has grown considerably in many parts of the world now days. Mashhad city with regard to  the Holy Shrine, More than 300 thousand foreign tourists per year, more than 31 public and private hospitals and specialties of cardiology, ophthalmology, pediatrics and. ..,which is one of the centers of attracting tourists and religious - health tourism in Iran. cost of medical services in these hospitals are 75% less than those of European and American hospitals in terms of the quality of similar services they offer and this could be a big advantage for developing such activities in the region. The research methodology has been a descriptive-analytical one which employs a SWOT analysis model in exploring the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats which are considered as internal and external factors critical for treatment tourism in this city. This paper Prepared by using the library documents and the field study and interviews with experts, has been considered as descriptive - analytical. The results show that infrastructure and expertise in Mashhad by the Holy Shrine are the main strengths of this research. And the other hand non-governmental organizations, investment and support and develop the bilateral relations between the Middle East countries are the main opportunities in this research. In conclusion the strengths and opportunities for developing such activities outweigh the weaknesses and threats.

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Geography and Place Identity in the Age of Globalization

Dr Abolfazl Ghanbari
The purpose of this paper is to describe the concept of neoliberalism، globalization. Also، the effects of these concepts on space and geographical identity and also by focusing on globalization effects on geography science have been addressed. Finally by criticizing the present way that expands neoliberalism ideology is sought to be able to maintain human being dignity in of economic، social and cultural developments of countries and prevails social، spatial and geographical justice as a dominant ideology in the world. The research methodology is descriptive-analytic. By studying the field of neoliberalism and globalization area، we can come to this conclusion that neoliberalism and globalization has deep and significant effects on geography that can be pointed out such as: increasing spatial analysis in geography، especially analyzing spatial inequality، regionalism in combination to reinforcing ethnical identity seeking، destroying penetration and power of social institutes، decreasing west political tradition in studying geography، return of religious radicalism and etc. The influence of geography on the evolution and transformation of the digital information age، the studies in this field has been done by geographers، shows that geography is not only adapted to the evolution، that even to see clearly and simply realistic view of some scholars، the phenomenon of globalization، the new stand and attitudes towards scientific field، also provides insight as to other sciences and an invitation to look again at the issues that face. Geographers with researches their thoughts and reflections on issues of the age، geography could turn back the edge of the scene and it made a respectable and reasonable range. So geography maximizes increasingly its own importance due to augmentation of researches in the field of spatial analysis.
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A Study of Effect of Geographical Factors on Societal Security (Case Study: Kerman Province)

Hadi Veicy

Geographical spaces and political units affected from its location and natural environment and with the surrounding environment have interaction. It seems that security, especially societal security as the most fundamental concept of as social life affected by the location and generally geographical factors. This study sought to examine the impact of geographical factors on societal security in Kerman province. Therefore, this study performed by systematic approach and integrated regional approach to issues of security and descriptive method. Data needed for research collected by library method and from United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Statistics Center of Iran and Kerman Province’s Applied Research Office of police commander. In regional scale referred to drug trafficking and terrorism and in local scale (province) indicated to indicators of social insecurity such as armed robbery, robbery rape, kidnapping and murder, and the amount of drugs seized. The results show that societal security of Kerman province affected by the location of the resources of transnational, sub-national and inter-provincial threats. Also, it influenced by topographical conditions and the remoteness and proximity to centers of crisis. Townships in the western half of the province than half East of the state of societal security have better.

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Analysis of Passive Defense Considerations in Urban Infrastructure With an Emphasis on Water Infrastructure

Fatemeh Bakhshi Shadmehri, Seyyed Hadi Zarghani , Omid Ali Kharzmi

These days, cities are the most important places for human life, hence we have faced the concentration of population, capital, and infrastructure in cities. This concentration not only has a lot of economic, social, political and environmental ramifications, but also has made cities into strategic military and terrorist attack targets. Past experiences and the present experience of wars in countries like Iraq, Kosovo and Yemen, shows that urban centers and the critical infrastructure of the cities, such as water, electricity and energy infrastructure are the main and primary targets in case of an invasion.Passive defense is a series of principles and precautions relating to defense and security which can assure stability and survival of a system. Accordingly, this paper deploys an analytical method to review the vulnerability level of various parts of water infrastructure in case of a potential military or terrorist attack. The results of the study show that, despite the vital role of water in human life in the cities,  different aspects of water infrastructure, including transport, storage, refining, administration and distribution are very vulnerable in case of a potential military or terrorist attack. Especially considering the fact that the protection and security of this infrastructure are very weak.Undoubtedly considering defense and security precautions in location, design, construction and management of these centers is a very important factor in minimizing the risks of a potential military or terrorist attack

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The Role of Vibrant Markets in Organizing Tehran

Hossein Mokhtari Hashi, Golnaz Naseroleslami, Amin Moradi

The market status in this context consists of the measures that affect the performance of financial units. Measures that are beyond the control of the managers of these units. The financial market is one of the defining factors of the financial status of each country, based on which the economical situation of each country could be assessed. Transparency and competitiveness are the factors that lead to a healthy market, foreign and domestic investment in industry, success of productive financial activities and elimination of counterproductive activities. A major reason for the recession that has overshadowed the financial market in recent years, is the lack of interest to invest in industrial sections due to discouraging statistics in this context. This not only directs capital into non-productive sections, but also seriously affects employment in all regions of the country. Which leads to a lot of unemployed people who engage in non-productive activities. The high rate of immigration to Tehran is due to the fact that large amounts of capital are invested in Tehran instead of being invested in productive sections throughout the country. This situation has directly and indirectly affected Tehran and it makes the efforts for organizing Tehran futile. The present study is seeking to analyze the effect of improving financial markets on the vibrancy of industrial units throughout the country with a descriptive and analytical approach. It also seeks to analyze and elaborate the relationship between satisfactory financial markets and decreased immigration rate to Tehran and balanced financial prosperity in various regions of the country as well as relieving the pressure on Tehran and making it easier to organize

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Determining Vulnerable Applications and Criteria for Spatial Locating With Emphasis on Unnatural Crises with AHP Method (Case Study: Sabzevar)

Mohamdreza Akhvan Abdollahian, Masuod Taghvaei, Hamidreza Varesi

With the rapid increase in world population it is observed that most of this population is concentrated in cities. Nowadays about half of the world's population live in cities and it is estimated that from 2.2 billion people that will be added to earth’s population in the next 30 years, 2.1 billion will be living in cities. And 2 billion of these people are expected to be born in developing countries (UNDP Annual Report, 2003), which is one of the most significant security issues. So understanding passive defense and the factors that shape it have a strong impact on the security of the country and minimizing the potential damages to the country. Since our country Iran has unique political circumstances and geographical location, in the last three decades it has always been threatened from different aspects which shows the importance of passive defense in urban planning of different cities. Among the outstanding issues that are important in passive defense and crisis management is the location of strategic or vulnerable facilities. The aim of this research is to achieve recognition of applications that could be affected in times of crisis and to identify criteria of user location affected in times of crisis from the perspective of spatial-physical indicators (effective in positioning applications) for preparation and development of projects based on rules and regulations, and this has been done for the city of Sabzevar. Therefore, the literature and concepts related to passive defense, crisis management and mapping applications are analyzed, and then the appropriate definition of vulnerable facilities has been presented, as well as guidelines for locating these types of applications for protection in the time of crisis. The next step is to review the documents and maps of Sabzevar to prioritize the indicators identified by order of importance. At the end with the help of AHP-GIS method optimized sites have been identified for these centers. The results suggest that, given the circumstances and characteristics of Sabzevar compatibility standards, comfort, performance, utility, health and safety standards in locating vulnerable facilities are the most important.

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Explanation of urban branding components with an emphasis on its economic aspects, case study: Mashhad metropolis

Ensieh Lezgi, Qadir Siami
One of the strategies of urban management in order to advance in the competitive world is planning to achieve sustainable urban branding for the city, which in addition to introducing the image of the city, is able to attract audiences. Tourism is the most important factor in achieving the economic benefits of urban branding. The metropolis of Mashhad is one of the goals of urban tourism with pilgrimage and religious tourism throughout the country, and it is called as the spiritual capital of the country. This city is the first destination of domestic tourism trips. The purpose of this study is to investigate urban branding components in Mashhad metropolitan with emphasis on tourism in order to achieve its economic goals. To the purpose, firstly, the components and indexes of urban branding with an emphasis on the economic dimension were identified and by using the views of  200citizens, pilgrims and experts were evaluated. Then, by applying statistical analyzes (analysis test and Friedman nonparametric test), has been studied and prioritized in Mashhad metropolis. The results show that among the six components of this research, the unique features of city have the highest score and international standing of the city has the lowest score. this type of research is called analytical- descriptive.
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Investigation Citizen Attitudes on Foreign Immigrants Resident in Mashhad

Fatemeh Vossughi, mohammad reza Mohseni

Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the most important countries, accepting immigrants and refugees from around the world. The immigrants are mostly from the neighboring countries.These immigrants had to leave their countries due tosecurity issues and difficult economic and social conditions. Most of these immigrants are Afghans.The greatest wave of immigration from Afghanistan to Iran startedwith Soviet attacksince 1978.
Mashhad the center of Khorasan-Razavi province sharing the eastern borders with this country,is one of the most important centers accept these immigrants. The population of Mashhad is about 3 million. And about4 decades after the first waves of Afghans' refugees, several million immigrants are periodically or permanently reside there. According to statistics provided by the authorities in 2012 about 150 thousand Afghan immigrants legally live in Mashhad, and have been estimated to be as many as illegal immigrants are living in this city.During these years, the facilities forimmigrants in the various fields are provided, including education, insurance, training, professional skills, etc.
The immigrants entering Iran has created many changes inthe economic, social, educational and cultural both for the immigrants and the host society.
 Alongside with the given facilities and changes taken place during decades in Iran, there have been different positive or negative views on the acceptance and residence of these immigrants. What is important is, despite the large amount of these immigrants mostly from Afghanistan and their long -term residence in Iran, how welcomed are they in the host society? How the immigrants and the host society’s people interaction is? What is the people's views over acceptance or reject these immigrants?
This research aims to find Mashhad’s citizens attitude as an important center accepting foreign migrants and connection of these attitudes with factors such as gender, education, income, job variety, location in the city and ethnicity.
Research Methodology
The methodology of this research is based on survey. The needed data have been gathered using the questionnaire. The assessment of these variables has been done using Likert and Bougardos scale. According to the aim research,the dependent variable analyzed by independent variables, is the respondentsattitudes over foreign immigrants. These attitudes have been analyzed due to economic, sanitation, traffic, education, housing and social harms.
Result
Results show that the most negative attitudes are about social harms variable. According to respondents view, the migrants impact on education variableis not positive either. The housing indicator has less negative views compared to education and shows 57.6% of respondents as negative attitude. But the respondents view on economic factors is more positive. In total, 32% of the respondents view on foreign migrants is negative.60% isneither positive nor negative and 8% of the view is positive.This research also analyses the connection between citizen’s view and independent indicators. These indicators are built upon economic, social and personal features of respondents such as gender, marital status, education, residence (on foreign migrants’ existence levels), age, nationality, income, religion and relations form with foreign migrants.
Results show that indicators such as gender, age, job and residence of respondents on number of foreign migrants and access level is meaningfully related to respondents views over foreign migrants.
Men have more negative attitudes over the issue than women and it shows the gender and views on foreign migrants are related.Relation between respondents’ age and their views shows that the older the respondents are, the more negative their views are. Relation between respondent’s job and their views shows that the industrial jobs, business and governmental jobs have mostly negative views.The respondents city zone (on welfarelevels), influences their views. Meaning that the more their residence has lower levels on sustainability, the more negative their views on foreign migrants are.The respondents city zone (on the number of foreign migrants) influences their views too. Meaning the people living in areas with a large number of foreign migrants has a more negative view than the people with fewer migrants in their neighborhood. The type and level of relationship with foreign migrants also influences their views. The more connected are the citizens to foreign migrants, the less negative views they have.Items such as marital status, education, income, religion, and ethnicity have no concern with Mashhad citizen attitudes

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The Impact of Geopolitical Interests of Iran and Saudi Arabia on Regional Challenges in Southwest Asia

Mohammad Reza Hafeznia , Ebrahim Roumina
Competition among countries in a region is a widespread phenomenon. However, the actions of the rival countries depend on the nature and number of matters of dispute and their approaches to resolving these disputes. Two countries that are struggling for hegemony in a region could not possibly have a peaceful relationship. The relationship between these two countries will be in a state of perpetual competition, marked by seeking allies and rebel groups from other countries in the region in order to confront one another. Today, Iran and Saudi Arabia's mutual competition in southwest Asia has shaped tensions. This rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia has spread to other countries in the region as well. This research is a descriptive and analytical study in order to analyze the geopolitical interests of Iran and Saudi Arabia in Southwest Asia. The data is collected through library research and documents. The results of this study show that the actions of the two countries of Iran and Saudi Arabia in southwest Asia are influenced by various factors such as historical and cultural reasons, ideological competition, conflicting political structure, religious rivalry, ethnic and religious groups with mutual interests in the rival country and political interventions of world powers. These factors play an important role in creation and continuation of competition and conflict between the two countries. And due to serious dependence of major parts of the world on natural resources of the two countries, the escalation of the crisis between Iran and Saudi Arabia will create a global challenge
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