[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Current Issue :: Search :: Submit an Article ::
:: Volume 31, Issue 3 (2016) ::
GeoRes 2016, 31(3): 103-117 Back to browse issues page
Analysis of Passive Defense Considerations in Urban Infrastructure With an Emphasis on Water Infrastructure
Fatemeh Bakhshi Shadmehri1, Seyyed Hadi Zarghani *2, Omid Ali Kharzmi3
1- Department Of Political Geography ,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,Madhhad, Iran
2- Department Of Political Geography ,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,Madhhad, Iran , h-zarghani@um.ac.ir
3- Department Of Urban Management ,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad,Iran
Abstract:   (7075 Views)

These days, cities are the most important places for human life, hence we have faced the concentration of population, capital, and infrastructure in cities. This concentration not only has a lot of economic, social, political and environmental ramifications, but also has made cities into strategic military and terrorist attack targets. Past experiences and the present experience of wars in countries like Iraq, Kosovo and Yemen, shows that urban centers and the critical infrastructure of the cities, such as water, electricity and energy infrastructure are the main and primary targets in case of an invasion.Passive defense is a series of principles and precautions relating to defense and security which can assure stability and survival of a system. Accordingly, this paper deploys an analytical method to review the vulnerability level of various parts of water infrastructure in case of a potential military or terrorist attack. The results of the study show that, despite the vital role of water in human life in the cities,  different aspects of water infrastructure, including transport, storage, refining, administration and distribution are very vulnerable in case of a potential military or terrorist attack. Especially considering the fact that the protection and security of this infrastructure are very weak.Undoubtedly considering defense and security precautions in location, design, construction and management of these centers is a very important factor in minimizing the risks of a potential military or terrorist attack

Keywords: Critical Infrastructure, Security, Passive Defense, Urban Water Facilities
Full-Text [PDF 695 kb]   (6881 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2016/08/4 | Accepted: 2016/10/23 | Published: 2016/09/19
1. Abdollahkhani , Ali (2006), “Protection of critical infrastructure information” Publication info, Year 14, No (54), pp91-128, (in persian).
2. Ahari, Aliakbar & Moradi, Esmaeel(2010), “Engineering evaluations of passive defense in the failure of dams and hydroelectric facilities depend” 3 International Conference on Seismic Retrofitting, Tabriz, (in persian).
3. Avazabadian ,Farshid, Jamshidi ,Ali, Rezayati, Arman,Mehdizadeh,Rasool (2014), “Present a new model for critical assets analysis in vulnerable Industries” , Journal of Emergency Management, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 47-55, (in Persian ).
4. Ghazizadeh, Alireza (2008), “Determine the principles of passive defense in urban water supply facilities” M.A Thesis, Power and Water University of Technology Shahid Abaspour, (in Persian).
5. Goharipour, Hamed (2012 ), “Recognizing the diversity of critical applications, available in metropolitan areas sensitive from the viewpoint of passive defense” 2nd NATIONAL Crises Management CONFERENCE, (in Persian ).
6. Hamzeh zadeh Hamid (2005), “Bioterrorism, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, the Islamic Republic Army, p312, (in Persian ).
7. Jafari , Younes & Hesami, Amir (2013), “Assessment of constructions in urban areas in terms of passive defense” The Congress Association Geopolitics of Iran. Passive Defense. Mashhad, (in Persian ).
8. Kalantri, Behrang, Soltanpour, Hedieh (2015), “Participatory management role in dealing with natural hazards with emphasis on urban flooding in Tehran” International Conference on Sustainable Development Strategies & Challenges,Tabriz, (in Persian ).
9. Karimi, Reza, Amini Saeed, Sahami ,Habib (2014) , “supply system and water distribution networks against threats from the perspective of passive defense” , International Conference on Geography Urban Planning and Sustainable Development. Tehran, (in Persian ).
10. Kheirandish Mohammad Reza (2014), “Analysis of the vulnerability of urban water supply facilities against enemy threats” Notional Congress Passive Defense In Science and Engineering, (in Persian ).
11. Krahman, Elke (2009), “New threats and new actors in international security” Tehran, Research Institute of STRATEGIC Studies , p252.
12. Kroll.An.J. securing our water supply protecting a vulnerable resource. Penn well 2006
13. MacKenzie, Kenneth (2003), “Asymmetric warfare” Tehran, Army Command and General Staff College, p216.
14. Masoom Beigi, Hamid & Jalili ghazizadeh, Mohamadreza (2008), “Passive Defense engineering For hydraulic structures downstream of dams” 2nd National Conference on Hydropower, (in Persian )
15. Movahedi nia, Jafar (2004), “Passive Defense” Center Planning and authoring textbooks Corps, p356, (in Persian )
16. Shahhosini , MohamadHosein (2009), “Bioterrorism in terms of military medicine” ,(in Persian )
17. Tayyeb, Alireza (2004), “terrorism” Tehran, Nashreney, p408, (in Persian )
18. Thomas E Derek & Gerald Hovater ( 2004), “Crisis Management, Principles and Practical guide for local governments” Tehran Urban Research & Planning Center.
19. Zarghani, S.Hadi & Aazami, Hadi (2010), “Analysis of Defense-Security Considerations in Preparation Plans for Mashhad with a Focus on Terroristic Attacks” Journal of Geography and Regional Development , Vol 8, No 14 , pp 96-71, (in Persian).
20. Zarghani, S.Hadi & Aazami, Hadi (2011), “Analysis of military-security considerations in preparation of military centers and camps with emphasis on Khorasan Razavi Province” The Journal of Spatial Planning, Volume (15), No (2), pp 141-161, (in Persian ).
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Bakhshi Shadmehri F, Zarghani S H, Kharzmi O A. Analysis of Passive Defense Considerations in Urban Infrastructure With an Emphasis on Water Infrastructure. GeoRes. 2016; 31 (3) :103-117
URL: http://georesearch.ir/article-1-45-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 31, Issue 3 (2016) Back to browse issues page
تحقیقات جغرافیایی Geographical Researches
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.04 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 4419