[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Current Issue :: Search :: Submit an Article ::
:: Volume 31, Issue 4 (2017) ::
GeoRes 2017, 31(4): 45-59 Back to browse issues page
New Approach of Increasing Safety in Tehran by the Means of Passive Defense
Behshid Hosseini *1, Mohaddeseh Ghadiri2
1- Department Of Architecture, Art University, Tehran, Iran
2- Department Of Urban Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (4544 Views)

Today it has been proven that it is almost impossible to take any action in complicated urban system without utilizing its internal capacities. The authors’ experiences show that improvement of safety level is not an exception. And concentrated top-down plans which aim to improve safety are not very successful in practice. Because if the citizens do not conform to these approaches and involve themselves in their enforcement, their implementation will cost highly and on the other hand will need permanent monitoring with the aim of preventing any contravention. Hence seeking for new approaches is essential. The authors’ experiences and new theories declare that the only pioneer approach is dividing the city to small local units and creating incentive and common goal which is improvement of neighborhood inhabitants’ safety as their common interest and more, improving the level of safety in these units by residents participation and at the end improving city safety through providing high level of safety in its small units. The items which are related to physical factors are the most important items of improving the safety level. In fact a context with minimum vulnerability toward disasters and planning for minimizing military attacks can have a considerable impact on residents’ safety. Appropriate locating of significant infrastructures and strategic facilities, which have critical role in city vulnerability and could be very effective in managing disasters after they have occurred plays an important role in improving safety level. It is indeed necessary to introduce an optimum pattern for locating these land uses with the participation of inhabitants. A pattern that due to neighborhood inhabitants’ involvement has the least implementation obstacles. Accordingly, in this research, after presenting the principles of participation, neighborhood orientation and scrutinizing of these land uses, all the significant land uses will be located in a neighborhood as an example. The selected neighborhood for this research is Bagh Melli neighborhood, in district 12 of Tehran. And eventually it would be possible with the participation of inhabitants.

Keywords: Improvement of safety, Significant land uses, Neighborhood orientation.
Full-Text [PDF 1393 kb]   (4292 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2016/11/9 | Accepted: 2016/12/17 | Published: 2017/03/17
1. ­Aggarwal, P. (2009), Understanding the Community, Group of Adult Education, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
2. Ahmadi, H. (1996), The role of Urbanism in reducing vulnerability of the city. Journal of Housing and Revolution, the Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation, (in Persian).
3. Alberley,D. (2003), Power is Held by Those Who Tell the Story, The Principles and Practice of Community-based Planning at: www. ius.uwinnipeg.ca.
4. Arefi, M. (2000), Asset-based Approaches to Community Development, Journal of Honar-ha-Ye-Ziba-Memari-Va-Shahrsazi, Tehran: University of Tehran, 10. 22-33, ( in Persian)
5. Azarpour, A. (2005), Community development planning, Case study: Siroos neighborhood, Daneshpour, Z. Shahid Beheshti University, Urban planning, (in Persian).
6. Bahrampour, M. Bemanian, M. (2012), Study on Optimum Location of Disaster Management Sites, Case Study: Region 3 of Tehran City, Journal of crisis management. 51-59, (in Persian).
7. Barton, Hugh, et al. (2004), Shaping neighborhoods: a guide for health, Caves, Roger W. (Ed.) ,2005, Encyclopedia of the City, (1st ed.), London, Rout ledge.
8. Daiinejad, F. Aminzadeh, E. Hosseini, B. (2005), Principles and guidelines principles and guidelines for designing and furnishing housing open spaces in terms of defense, Tehran: Building and Housing Research Center, ( in Persian).
9. Fridman J. (1993), Toward a Non-Euclidian Mode of Planning, APA Journal, 482.
10. Ghanavati, A. Sheikhi, M. (2010), The role of urban planning in reducing earthquake risk of depressed area, case study: region 12 of Tehran city, Journal of natural geography. 9. 29-42, (In Persian).
11. Hajipour, kh. (2005), Community-led planning, the best approach for create sustainable urban management, Journal of Honar-ha-Ye-Ziba-Memari-Va-Shahrsazi, Tehran, University of Tehran, 26. 37-46, (in Persian).
12. Hosseini, B. (2010), Passive defense criteria in urban public buildings architectural design, Tehran, Passive Defense Organization of Iran, (in Persian).
13. Hosseini, B. Mahdiyar,L. (2005), Mastering Crisis Management, create independent neighborhoods, Tehran, 3RD International Conference on Integrated Natural Disaster Management.
14. JICA, C. (2000), The study on seismic micro zoning of the Greater Tehran Area in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Pacific Consultants International Report, OYO Cooperation, Japan.
15. Kalantari, Kh. (2012), Quantitative Models in planning (region, urban and rural), Tehran, Farhang-Saba, (in Persian).
16. Kallus, R. Law-Yone, H. (1997), Neighborhood: The Metamorphosis of an Idea, Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 14 (2).
17. Lee, D., Newby, H. (1983), The Problem of Sociology: an Introduction to the Discipline, London, Unwin Hyman.
18. Ministry of Social Development local women and children Tanzania, (1996).
19. Monzavi, M. Soleimani, M. Tavalaei, S. Chavoushi, E. (2010), Vulnerability of city deteriorated districts of central Tehran to earthquake (case study of zone 12), Journal of Human geography research quarterly, 73. 1-18, (in Persian).
20. Parhizkar, A. (1997), Appropriate pattern for locating urban public facilities with help models and urban GIS, (in Persian).
21. Partovi, P. Naderi Buanlu, M. (2010), Presenting community-Led urban management pattern for Mashhad, Journal of Architecture and urban planning, Tehran art University, pp. 80-63, (in Persian).
22. Rafieian, M., Tajdar, V. (2008), Health status assessment in Mashhad conurbation: A regional approach, Journal of Geography and Regional Development, 10. 163-184, (in Persian).
23. Stern, Richard E. (2007), Urban Governance in Developing Countries: Experiences and Challenges (in: Governing Cities in a Global Era, Edited by Robin Hambleton and Jill Simone Gross), New York, Palgarave Macmillan.
24. Swiss Federal Department of Justic and police Office of Civil defense (1969), Technical directives for the construction of private air raid shelters and the 1971 conception of the Swiss civil defense, USA.
25. Turner, E. C. (1969), Diffeomorphism of a product of spheres, Invention mathematical, 8(1), pp.69-82.
26. Ziari, K. (1998), New towns planning. The organization for researching and composing University textbook in the humanities, (in Persian).
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hosseini B, Ghadiri M. New Approach of Increasing Safety in Tehran by the Means of Passive Defense. GeoRes 2017; 31 (4) :45-59
URL: http://georesearch.ir/article-1-25-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 31, Issue 4 (2017) Back to browse issues page
تحقیقات جغرافیایی Geographical Researches
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 4540