زمان پاسخگویی تنها روزهای زوج ساعت 8 الی 10 صبح 

   [Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: About :: Main :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 33, Issue 1 (6-2018) ::
geores 2018, 33(1): 12-25 Back to browse issues page
Explanation of the Relationship Between Countries’ Access to Sea and Human Development Index
Reza Allahverdizadeh 1, Mohammad Reza Hafeznia 2, Zahra Ahmadipour 2, Mahdi Pourtaheri 2
1- Maragheh University, Maragheh, Iran
2- Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (594 Views)
Changing nature of the relationship between human and geographical environment has had considerable influence on geographical science school of thought. In terms of "ecological analysis", this relationship is one of the important research fields in geographical sciences. Geographic location is one of the key elements in the environment, which is divided into a number of subgroups. In all traditional and modern theories of geography, geographical location is one of the most important variables in power formulation and political behavior of countries. Maritime location and access to free waters an element of geographical location, and it is a significant variable in global theories of geopolitics and maritime studies. Countries’ access to maritime environment has both constraints and opportunities for countries. The purpose of this study is to explain the relationship between maritime location of countries and their Human Development Index (HDI), as well as comparison of HDI between maritime countries and landlocked countries. This research is basic in terms of its objective, and descriptive-analytic and correlative in terms of its nature and methodology. To expound the relationship between the maritime location of countries and their HDI, countries were ranked based on their maritime locations, and then the relationship between the two variables has been explained. The results of regression analysis show that the correlation coefficient between maritime location index and HDI equals 0.314 (P value 0.000<0.05). The results show a significant relation between the maritime location and human development index, to the extent that maritime location index is increased by 1 unit, the HDI is increased by 0.577 (constant 0.649). Landlocked countries are selected as control group in order to illustrate the effect of access to the sea on HDI. The results of t-test indicate that maritime countries are ranked highly in HDI in comparison with landlocked countries (P value 0.015<0.05). According to the results, it can be suggested that maritime location is one of the factors affecting the development process of countries. But there are other factors which have higher explanatory power than maritime location.
Keywords: Access to Sea, Maritime Countries, Landlocked Countries, Human Development Index.
Full-Text [PDF 1206 kb]   (397 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Urban Planning
Received: 2017/12/1 | Accepted: 2018/02/27 | Published: 2018/06/18
References
1. A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Sea power (2007), Retrieved from: http://www.navy.mil/maritime/MaritimeStrategy.pdf, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
2. Amery, H., (2008), Principles of International Relations, Tehran, Aghah Pub. (in Persian).
3. Burke, L., Kura, Y., Kassem, K., Revenga, C., Spalding, M., Mcallister, D., (2001), Pilot Analysis of Ecosystems Coastal, Washington, D.C, World Resources Institute, Retrieved from: http://www.costabalearsostenible.es/PDFs/AMYKey%20References_Indicators/PAGE_WRI.pdf Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
4. Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN)., (2014), Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ), Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, V.2, (1990, 2000, 2010, 2100), Columbia University, Retrieved from: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/lecz-urban-rural-population-land-area-estimates-v2/data-download, Last Seen: 25/8/2014.
5. Cohen, S. B. (2008), Geopolitics of the World System, Translated by Abas Kardan, Tehran, SAMT Pub. (in Persian)
6. Dasgupta, S., Laplante, B., Meisner, C., Yan, J. (2007), The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Developing Countries a Comparative Analysis, Washington D.C, World Bank Policy Research.
7. Division for ocean affairs and the law of the sea of the United Nations, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements, Last Seen: 08/10/2013
8. Ebinger, C. K., Zambetakis, E. (2009), The Geopolitics of Arctic Melt, International Affairs, Vol. 85, No. 6, pp. 1215-1232.
9. Dougherty, J.E., Pfaltzgraff, R.L (2009), Contending Theories of International Relations a Comprehensive Survey, Translated by Vahid Bozorgi, AliRezaTayyeb, Tehran, Ghoomes Pub (in Persian)
10. Encyclopedia Britannica (2012), Boundaries of the World’s Oceans and Seas, Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/2731/Boundaries-of-the-worlds-oceans-and-seas?topicId=648562, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
11. Evers, H. D., Azhari, K. (2011.a), The Maritime Potential of ASEAN Countries the CenPRIS Ocean Index, Mima Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 18, pp. 1-7.
12. Evers, H. D., Azhari, K. (2011.b), The Maritime Potential of ASEAN Economies, Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, Vol. 1, No. 30, pp. 117-124.
13. Evers, H. D., (2010), Measuring the Maritime Potential of Nations, the CenPRIS Ocean index, Phase one (ASEAN), CenPRIS Working Paper Series, No. 10, pp. 1-18.
14. Evers, H. D., Mdarit, S. (2011), The Maritime Potential of Penang, CenPRIS Working Paper Series, No. 11, pp. 1-22.
15. FAO Country Profile (2014), Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/en/ (Last Seen: 25/7/2014).
16. Faye, M. L., Mcarthur, J. W., Sachs, J. D., Snow, T. (2004), The Challenges Facing Landlocked Developing Countries, Journal of Human Development, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 31-68.
17. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2014), Country Area, Retrieved from: http://faostat.fao.org/site/377/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=377#ancor, Last Seen: 7/22/2014.
18. Ghavam, A. (2010), Principles of Foreign Policy and International Politics, SAMT Pub (in Persian).
19. Glassner, M. I., Fahrer, C., (2004), Political Geography, John Willy, Sons Pub.
20. Hafeznia, M. R. (2006), Principles and Concepts of Geopolitics, Mashhad, Papoli Pub (in Persian).
21. Haggett, P. A. (1996), Geography a Modern Synthesis, Translated by Shapoor Gudarzinejad,Vol. 2, Tehran, SAMT Pub., (in Persian)
22. Hastings, D. A., (2009), Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index Findings for Asia and the Pacific, UNESCAP Working Paper: Macroeconomic Policy and Development Division, United Nations ESCAP, Retrieved from: http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/wp-12-02_0.pdf, Last Seen: 7/22/2014.
23. Hoffmann, J., Kumar, S., (2010), Globalization- The Maritime Nexus, In Costas Th. Grammenos (Ed.), the Handbook of Maritime Economics and Business (The Grammenos Library), London, Routledge Pub. pp. 35-65,
24. Holt-Jensen, A. (1982), Geography, Geography - History and Concepts a Student's Guide, Translated by Jalal Tabrizi, Tehran, Seir-O Syahat Pub. (in Persian).
25. Hong, N. (2012), The Melting Arctic and its Impact on China’s Maritime Transport, Research in Transportation Economics, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 50-57.
26. Heywood, A. (2011), Global Politics, Palgrave Macmillan Pub.
27. http://www.eoearth.org/topics/view/51cbfc78f702fc2ba8129e9b/, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
28. http://www.citypopulation.de/, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
29. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
30. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_coast/area_ratio#cite_ref-outlying_11-0, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
31. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative_divisions_of_Norway Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_Administrative_Region_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
33. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exclusive_economic_zone#cite_note-searoundus-50, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
34. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependent_territory, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
35. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_of_administrative_divisions_by_country, Last Seen: 23/7/2014.
36. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_current_dependent_territory_leaders, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
37. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states, Last Seen: 23/7/2014.
38. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oceans_and_seas_boundaries_map-en.svg, Last Seen: 1/5/2014.
39. http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/world.htm, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
40. http://www.un.org/en/members/index.shtml#g, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
41. International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (1953), Limits of Oceans and Seas, International Hydrographic Organization, Bremerhaven, PANGAEA.
42. International Maritime Organization (IMO) (2012), International Shipping Facts and Figures Information Resources on Trade, Safety, Security, Environment, Maritime Knowledge Centre, Retrieved from: http://www.imo.org/KnowledgeCentre/ShipsAndShippingFactsAndFigures /TheRoleandImportanceofInternationalShipping/Documents/International%20Shipping%20-%20Facts%20and%20Figures.pdf. Last Seen: 5/23/2014.
43. International Maritime Organization (IMO) (2006), International Shipping and World Trade Facts and Figures, Retrieved from: http://treeofideas.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/books-international-shipping-and-world-trade-facts-and-figures.pdf, Last Seen: 5/23/2014.
44. Jablonsky, D. (2001), National Power, In Cerami, J. R., Holcomb, J. F., (Eds.), U.S. Army War College Guide to Strategy, Retrieved from: http://www.comw.org/qdr/fulltext/01cerami.pdf, Last Seen: 5/30/2014.
45. Kazemy, A.A., (2008), International Relations in Theory and in Practice, Tehran, Ghoomes Pub. (in Persian).
46. Lahiri, B., Masjidi. F.K. (2012), Landlocked Countries a Way to Integrate with Coastal Economies, Journal of Economic Integration, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 505-519.
47. Mahdavi, M., Taherkhani, M. (2004), Applied Statistical Analysis in Geographical Researches, Tehran, Ghoomes Pub. (in Persian).
48. Masjedi, F. (2002), Comparison of Countries Development, Journal of Economic Research, Vol. 4, No. 10, pp. 67- 103, (in Persian).
49. Mohammad Alikhani, S., Asefzadeh, S., Mohebbifar, R., Montazery, A. (2012), Survey of Human Development Index (HDI) in Iran and Selected Countries, Journal of Payesh, No. 4, pp. 415- 423, (in Persian).
50. Morgenthau, H. J. (1995), Politics Among Nations the Struggle for Power and Peace, Translated by Homeyra Moshirzadeh, Tehran, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Printing Institute Pub. (in Persian).
51. Organski, A.F.K. (1958), World Politics, Translated by Hoseein Farhoodi, Tehran, B.T.N.K Pub. (in Persian).
52. Peniwati, K., Hsiao, T. (1987), Ranking Countries According to Economic, Social and Political indicators, Mathematical Modeling, Vol. 9, No. 3-5, pp. 203–209.
53. PortFocus (2014), Retrieved from: http://www.portfocus.com/ Last Seen: 9/9/2014.
54. Pourtaheri, M. (2010), Application of Multi-Attribute Decision Making Methods in Geography, Tehran, SAMT Pub (in Persian)
55. Roach, J. A. (2004), Initiatives to Enhance Maritime Security at Sea, Marine Policy, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 41-66.
56. Saey, A., (2002), Statistical Analysis in Social Sciences, Tehran, Kian Mehr Pub. (in Persian)
57. Saffarzadeh, M., Azizabadi, E., Hamidi, H., Shahba, M., (2009), Maritime Transportation, Tehran, Asrardanesh Pub. (in Persian)
58. Seaports info, marketplace (2014), Retrieved from: http://ports.com/ Last Seen: 22/9/2014.
59. The World Factbook., (2014), Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/Pub. /the-world-factbook/ Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
60. The World Factbook., (2014), Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/Pub.s/the-world-factbook/fields/2120.html. Last Seen: 16/9/2014.
61. Seifzadeh, H. (2003), Theory-Building in International Relations Fundamental and Paradigms, Tehran, SAMT Pub. (in Persian).
62. Shakuie, H. (1996), Philosophy of Geography, Tehran, Gitashenasi Pub (in Persian)
63. United Nations Development Programme (2014), Human Development Report, New York, Retrieved from: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-report-en-1.pdf, Last Seen: 29/1/2015.
64. United Nations Development Programme (2007), Human Development Report, New York, Retrieved from: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/268/hdr_20072008_en_complete.pdf. Last Seen: 29/1/2015.
65. United Nations Development Programme (1990), Human Development Report, NewYork, Oxford University Pub.
66. United Nations Statistics Division (2013), Demographic Yearbook 2012, New York, United Nation Pub.
67. United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS), (2007), Trade Facilitation and Transit Transport Issues for Landlocked Developing Countries, In Cooperation with Government of Mongolia, UNDP, UNCTAD and the Mission of Paraguay in Geneva, Retrieved from: http://unohrlls.org/UserFiles/File/LLDC%20Documents/MTR/LLDCs%20Publication.pdf. Last Seen: 7/22/2014.
68. Uprety, K. (2005), The Transit Regime for Landlocked States, International Law and Development Perspectives (Law, Justice, and Development Series), Washington, D.C, World Bank Pub. Retrieved from: http://unohrlls.org/UserFiles/File/Publications/LLDC/WB%20transit%20regime%20for% 20LLDC%202005.pdf Last Seen: 7/22/2014.
69. Weigert, H.W., Brodie, H., Donerty, E.W., Fernstrom, J.R., Fischer, E., Kirk, D. (1956), Principles of Political Geography, New York, Appleton- Century-Crofts Inc.
70. World Resources Institute (2014), Coastal and Marine Ecosystems - Marine Jurisdictions, Coastline Length Units Kilometers, Retrieved from: http://web.archive.org/web/20120419075053/ http://earthtrends.wri.org/ text/coastal-marine/variable-61.html, Last Seen: 7/7/2014.
71. World Ports Source, (2014), Retrieved from: http://www.worldportsource.com/countries.php. Last Seen: 9/9/2014.
72. World Sea Ports (2014), Retrieved from: http://www.searates.com/maritime, Last Seen: 9/9/2014.
73. World Political Boundaries (2014), Retrieved from: http://www.sharegeo.ac.uk/handle/10672/124? show=full, Last Seen: 8/7/2014.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA code



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Allahverdizadeh R, Hafeznia M R, Ahmadipour Z, Pourtaheri M. Explanation of the Relationship Between Countries’ Access to Sea and Human Development Index. geores. 2018; 33 (1) :12-25
URL: http://georesearch.ir/article-1-523-en.html


Volume 33, Issue 1 (6-2018) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه تحقیقات جغرافیایی Geographical Researches Quarterly Journal
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 3764