1. Abboud, S. (2015), Analysis is Iran Really Pulling Out of Syria? Retrieved from: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/12/analysis-iran-pulling-syria-151214055704354.html
2. Berti, B., Guzansky, Y. (2012), The Syrian Crisis and the Saudi-Iranian Rivalry the Foreign Policy Research Institute Retrieved from http://www.fpri.org/article/2012/10/the-syrian-crisis-and-the-saudi-iranian-rivalry/
3. Bozorgmehr, N. (2016), Iran Deploys Army to Bolster Support for Syrian president the Financial Times. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/1e8910d4-0194-11e6-99cb-83242733f755
4. Emre, P., Abu-Nasr, D. (15 March 2012), Syrian Armed Forces Desertion Said to Surge to 60,000, Bloomberg, Last Seen: 7 January 2014.
5. Ezrow, N. (2015), Explainer who are Syria’santi-Assad forces? Retrieved from: http://theconversation.com/explainer-who-are-syrias-anti-assad-forces-48527
6. FFP (2010- 2016), Retrieved from: www.fundforpeace.org.
7. Fulton, W., (2011), Syria-Iran Foreign Relations. Iran Tracker. Retrieved from: http://www.irantracker.org/foreign-relations/syria-iran-foreign-relations
8. Fulton, W., Wyer, S. (2012), Iranian Strategy in Syria. Institute for study of war Retrieved from: http://www.understandingwar.org/report/iranian-strategy-syria
9. Ghavam, A. A. (2011), Globalization and Third World. Tehran, SAMT Pub. (in Persian)
10. Halliday, F., Buzan, B., Hinnebosch, R. (2013), New Middle East Theory and Practice, Translated by Asghar Ghahramanpour, Tehran, Amir Kabir Pub.
11. Halliday, F. (2005), The Middle East in International Relations Power, Politics and Ideology New York. Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Pub.
12. Hinnebusch, R. (2003), The international Politics of the Middle East Manchester University Pub.
16. Katz, M.N. (2012), Russia and the Arab Spring Middle East Institute Retrieved from: http://www.mei.edu/content/russia-and-arab-spring
17. Katzman, K., Blanchard, C. M., Humud, C. E., Margesson, R., Tiersky, A., Weed, M. C. (2014), The'Islamic State'Crisis and US Policy Congressional Research Service (Library of Congress). (In Kurdish)
18. Lund, A., (2015), Who Are the Pro-Assad Militias? The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/syriaincrisis/?fa=59215.
19. Mercy corps (2016), Quick facts What you Need to know About the Syria Crisis Mercy Corps Global Humanitarian Aid Agency, Retrieved from: https://www.mercycorps.org/articles/iraq-jordan-lebanon-syria-turkey/quick-facts-what-you-need-know-about-syria-crisis
20. Pollack, M. K. (2004), Arabs at War Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991 (Studies in War, Society, and the Military). Bison Books.
21. Purcell, J. (2016), Will Turkey and Saudi Arabia intervene in Syria? Retrieved from: http://globalriskinsights.com/2016/03/will-turkey-and-saudi-arabia-intervene-in-syria/
22. Schmitt, E. (2012), C.I.A, Said to Aid in Steering Arms to Syrian Opposition, the NewYork Times.
23. Sly, L. (2011), Sectarian Violence kills Dozens in Syria Washington Post Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/syrian-tanks-troops-fire-on-protest-strongholds-in homs/2011/11/03/gIQAgVBbiM_story.html.
24. Starr, B., Labott, E., Acosta, J. (2015). Obama authorizes resupply of Syrian opposition. Retrieved from: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/10/05/politics/russia-ground-campaign-syria-isis/
25. Talebi Arani, R. (2014), Courses on Culture, Ethnicity and Nationality Edited by Yahya Zarrinnarges Shahid Beheshti University (in Persian)
26. Wendt, A. (2013), Social Theory of International Politics Translated by Homeira Moshirzadeh, Tehran the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Department Pub. (in Persian).
27. Wilson, S. (2011), How the U.S. Message on Assad shifted Washington Post Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/checkpoint washington/post/how-the-us-message-on-assad-shifted/2011/08/18/gIQAfPZxNJ_blog.html.
28. Yazdanfam, M. (2012), Fragile states and human security, Tehran, Research Institute of Strategic Studies (In Persian).
29. Zarrinnarges, Y. (2015), An Explanation on Failed State Building in the New Iraq and Its Implications for Iran. Master's thesis, Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University (in Persian).