Persian

About Geographical Research

This Journal is Published in Persian. 
Geographical Research journal is an open-access, online, peer-reviewed journal that has been published by the Afarand Scholarly Publishing Institute. It is a pleasure to announce that the Geographical Research journal has published more than one thousand articles from valuable academic achievements of researchers and experts since 1986 (1365 Hijri). Geographical Research journal aims to produce and promote sciences related to different disciplines of geography, including urban and rural planning, political geography, natural geography, economic geography, and related fields of geography, in order to exchange scientific and research findings between specialists and scientific and research centers both inside and outside Iran.

Owner & Director-in-Charge: Professor Mohammad Hossein Papoli Yazdi

Scientific Supporter: Amir Kabir Research Institute

Publishers: Afarand Scholarly Publishing Institute

Financial Supporter: Amayesh & Tosee Shargh Co.
Publishing Period: 4 Issues per Year
Costs: APC Statement (Persian)

Language: Persian Full-text / English Abstract (250 Words) / English Expanded Abstract (1500 Words)
Social Media: LinkedIn; Research Gate; Telegram

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Mohammad Hossein Papoli Yazdi; PhD
Professor of Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Fatemeh Vossughi; PhD
Associate Editor; Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Scientific Supporters
Amir Kabir Research Institute
Articles

Assessment of the Social Participation Indicators in the Establishment of Urban Creative Districts within District Eleven in Tehran

M. Doosthoseini, V. Bigdeli Rad, M. Moinifar

Aims: Nowadays, cities engage in a competition to showcase their innovative approaches within financial frameworks. The objective of this research endeavor was to employ the technique of structural equation modeling to validate a conceptual framework pertaining to social participation in the establishment of creative districts within urban settings.
Methodology: The methodology employed for this study involved conducting applied research within District 11 of the Tehran Municipality during the year 2023. The selection of the statistical population was based on the most recent population and housing census, resulting in a total of 308,176 individuals. By utilizing the Cochran formula, a sample size of 383.6 individuals was determined. After eliminating incomplete questionnaires, a total of 374 questionnaires from native residents of District 11 in Tehran were analyzed. Each neighborhood within District 11 made a contribution of 22 questionnaires. Spatial cluster sampling was implemented as the selected method of sampling. The collected data were subsequently subjected to structural equation modeling in order to ascertain the underlying causal relationships between the variables.
Findings: The results indicated a significant positive impact of involvement on social participation, as demonstrated by a path coefficient of 0.701. Moreover, several factors including the sustainability, depth, rate, and diversity of participation also displayed favorable and substantial effects on social participation, with corresponding path coefficients of 0.682, 0.226, 0.882, and 0.429. The increased level of social participation within the urban creative district played a pivotal role in promoting innovation, citizen engagement, quality of life, and the human capital of its residents.
Conclusion: In relation to the variables pertaining to social participation, it was observed that the variables associated with participation's influence exerted a more substantial impact, while the aspect of participation sustainability displayed a relatively weaker effect on social participation within the context of urban creative districts. Moreover, sub-indicators such as the failure to identify and attract talented individuals, the lack of cooperation and participation from diverse segments of society, contribute to the untapped potential and impede the growth of the urban creative district.
 

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Social Responsibility of Universities in the Environmental Field and Solving the Water Shortage Crisis in Iran

S.R. Hoseini , S.F. Jafari Paibandi, M. Khoshkhati
Aims: Large and prominent global organizations consider responsibility towards society and the environment as a part of their strategy and try to contribute to the health and well-being of society by complying with ethical principles and transparency. In recent years, some universities have included social responsibility as an approach to sustainable development in their mission statements. Therefore, the current research aimed at the social responsibility of universities in the environmental field and solving the water shortage crisis in Iran. Therefore, the present study investigated the social responsibility of universities in the environmental field and solving the water shortage crisis in Iran.
Conclusion: Universities can provide specialized graduates to solve problems related to water shortage in the society by providing educational programs related to water and environmental resources management. These programs can include environmental engineering, water resources, earth sciences, biology and other related fields. In addition to education, universities can play an important role in scientific research and research projects in the field of environment and water scarcity. These studies can help to identify new solutions, new technologies and effective policies in the management of water resources and environment. Universities can be effective in promoting the culture of environmental protection and optimal use of water resources by establishing technical and scientific cooperation with related organizations and institutions. The collaborations can include joint research, knowledge exchange, providing technical advice and continuing education.
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Presenting the Model of Establishing Electronic Tourism in the Tourism Development of the Coastal Cities of Mazandaran Province Using the Grounded Theory

M. Rastgari, K. Bozorgmehr, L. Ebrahimi Jamnani, A. Haghzad
Aims: In the current era, nations are achieving success in the realm of e-tourism, whereby they leverage the potential of electronic tourism. This encompasses numerous regions within the country, particularly the coastal cities situated in the province of Mazandaran, which have consistently been renowned as tourist hotspots. The primary objective of this investigation was to explore the implementation of electronic tourism for the enhancement of tourism in the coastal cities of Mazandaran province.
Methodology: The conduction of this study took place within the confines of Mazandaran province during the years 2023-2024. Employing a qualitative approach in terms of methodology and a fundamental approach in terms of purpose, the study model was developed utilizing the grounded theory method. The collection of data was facilitated through semi-structured interviews conducted with experts, with a total of 21 participants (N=21). The selection of samples was performed using the snowball sampling technique. For the analysis of the gathered data, the approach proposed by Strauss and Corbin was adopted.
Findings: After conducting the three stages of open, central, and selective coding, a total of 26 sub-categories were identified within the overarching categories of causal, contextual, intervening conditions, strategies, and consequences. These sub-categories were organized into a final model consisting of six dimensions. The contextual condition category included factors such as organizational complexity, tourist conditions, and environmental conditions. The causal condition category encompassed the dynamics of the industry, tourists, and manpower, as well as the strengthening of organizations and infrastructures, and the dynamics of problem solving. The intervening condition category involved aspects such as management, structural barriers, and characteristics of the tourism industry. Additionally, the strategies category encompassed organizational flexibility, interaction with tourists, customer-oriented human resources, and service improvement. Lastly, the consequences category included the development of e-tourism, increased tourist satisfaction, economic development, and increased income.
Conclusions: The ultimate model derived from this investigation will pave the way for the enhancement of managerial approaches and the achievement of the ultimate objective of e-tourism establishment, and can serve as the framework for subsequent growth.
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Identification and Ranking the Criteria for Sustainable Smart Tourism Growth in Tehran

M. Rahmati Kachomesghali, R. Sanavi Fard, A.A. Eyvazi Heshmat
Aims: Smart tourism can be considered as one of the mechanisms that can contribute to the enhancement of competition and the sustainable development of tourism. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the criteria that are crucial for the growth of sustainable smart tourism in Tehran.
Methodology: In order to achieve the goal, a survey was conducted in Tehran between 2023 and 2024, employing both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The research tool used in this study was a questionnaire. To determine the most influential factors in the model for the growth of sustainable smart tourism in Tehran, an initial questionnaire was developed. This questionnaire consisted of 42 questions, which were rated on a 4-point Likert scale and distributed to 50 experts. After collecting the experts' opinions in two consecutive phases, a final questionnaire consisting of 39 questions was approved. For data analysis, the Fuzzy Delphi and fuzzy network analysis methods were utilized.
Findings: Based on the screening of indicators using the Delphi approach, 43 indicators in the areas of social, economic, sustainability, suppliers and stakeholders, competitors, natural, technical, and infrastructural were identified as effective factors in promoting smart tourism at the city level in Tehran. According to the results of network analysis, the goal harmonization index of economic, social, political, and environmental objectives had the first priority, and smart experiences had the second priority compared to other factors. Other factors also showed their importance in the development of smart and sustainable tourism based on the obtained coefficients.
Conclusion: The impact of various indicators under social, environmental, technical, infrastructural, and especially economic factors on the development of smart tourism was indicated. In between, indicators related to policymakers and stakeholders have a higher priority compared to other categories.
 
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Climatic Reversibility; Exposure Approach to Face Environmental Disturbances in the Field of Health

K. Rezaie, F. Zarei
Introduction: The significant interplay between health and the environment is undeniable. Alterations in climate have a direct impact on the physical and mental well-being of individuals, primarily through modifications in weather phenomena such as heat waves, droughts, floods, and storms. Furthermore, climate changes indirectly influence the quality of water, air, and food, further exacerbating health concerns. Health services are frequently regarded as the primary line of defense in mitigating the adverse effects on health, particularly those arising from climate change. The objective of this investigation was to examine the principal strategies employed in addressing environmental risks stemming from climate changes within the realm of health.
Methodology: In this investigation, a methodical examination approach was employed to scrutinize investigations on the management of climate change from 2022 to 2023. English publications were sought in databases like Elsevier, Pubmed, Web of Science, and Scopus. The exploration for publications was executed in two phases. In the initial phase, publications linked to climate change, climate variability, and global warming were sought employing keywords like "Climate change", "Climate variability", and "Global warming". In the subsequent phase, amid these publications, pertinent publications were chosen for examination and evaluation employing keywords like "Health", "Exposure", "Infectious disease", "Mental health", "Compatibility", and "Mitigation".
Findings: Primary healthcare systems play a crucial role in fostering resilience at both individual and community levels. These systems serve as a fundamental structure for safeguarding global citizens through the provision of accessible, cost-effective, responsive, and dependable healthcare services. Upon examining a range of studies, it becomes evident that it is imperative to establish resilient healthcare systems that can effectively withstand the impacts of climate change. This can be achieved by adopting adaptive or resilience-oriented approaches, as well as implementing mitigative strategies. To this end, it is recommended to enhance the capacity of healthcare systems, ensure effective and regular risk management at all levels, foster collaboration across multiple sectors, develop action plans, and make both short-term and long-term investments to enhance flexibility.
Conclusion: In conclusion, healthcare systems, being a critical foundation for protecting global citizens, should prioritize the enhancement of social resilience by implementing both mitigative and adaptive measures to combat the challenges posed by climate change.
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Investgating the Status of Urban Regeneration Indicators in Zahedan City

S. Poudineh, M. Hafez Rezazadeh, Gh. Miri
Aims: Regeneration, a contemporary approach within the realm of urban restoration, encompasses a broad range of aspects, encompassing both physical and social structures. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the state of urban regeneration indicators in Zahedan city.
Methodology: The study was conducted during 2023-2024, employing a questionnaire as the research instrument. This questionnaire consisted of 4 indices, specifically focusing on socio-cultural conditions (9 items), economic prosperity (8 items), environmental condition (9 items), and physical condition (8 items). A 34-item questionnaire was devised employing the Likert scale. The validity of the research instrument was assessed by disseminating a questionnaire to 24 urban planning experts. Reliability of the indices was evaluated using Kröbnach's alpha. Subsequently, the collected data was subjected to analysis using SPSS 25 software, employing one-sample T-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Findings: The index of social and cultural conditions displayed a favorable status, exhibiting an average of 3.287. Similarly, the environmental condition indicated a favorable state with an average of 3.389, and the physical quality demonstrated a favorable condition with an average of 3.321. Conversely, the economic prosperity index portrayed an unfavorable situation, with an average of 2.715. The city areas of Zahedan exhibited a significant disparity in terms of sustainable urban regeneration. Notably, the index of socio-cultural conditions displayed the highest discrepancy, while the index of economic prosperity showcased the lowest variation.
Conclusion: The results highlight the favorable status of the environmental, socio-cultural, and physical indicators, juxtaposed with the unfavorable state of the economic prosperity index.
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Explaining the Situation of Tehran Metropolis Based on Urban Innovation System

A. Sheikhi, H. Hataminejad, S. Zanganeh Shahraki, A. Pour Ahmad, H. Mirzaei
Aims: Presently, to establish a conducive residential environment, enhance the commercial landscape, effectively manage resources, maintain cultural identity, and instill optimism among its inhabitants, Tehran metropolis necessitates an enhanced utilization of resources and the implementation of various novel solutions to address prevailing and emerging challenges. The primary objective of this study was to assess the urban innovation status of Tehran metropolis.
Methodology: The current research is pragmatic in its objectives, exhibiting a mixed methodology approach and employing a descriptive-analytical survey method. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews and questionnaires devised by the researcher. Subsequent to the coding and examination of the interviews utilizing thematic analysis, the outcomes were incorporated into a researcher-developed questionnaire for the evaluation of Tehran metropolis, with the data being scrutinized using SPSS software.
Findings: The efficient institutional framework and transparent laws, along with the financial-institutional policies of the government, the level of citizen participation, the presence of parent universities, a pool of creative and expert human resources, the existence of technological and innovative companies, access to diverse markets, well-developed urban innovation infrastructures, a unique city brand, the strategic city location, and the quality of life are all crucial factors that can be used to assess the state of the Tehran metropolis. Among these factors, the parent universities, strategic location, human resources, and city brand exhibit a more favorable condition.
Conclusion: The current situation of the Tehran metropolis does not appear to be very conducive in terms of urban innovation and its functionalities. Optimal conditions for the adaptation of such systems to the Tehran metropolis are also not adequately observed.
 
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Investigating the Role of Public Participation in the Improvement and Revitalization of the Worn-Out Fabric of the City Center (Case Study: Gorgan City)

Hanieh Yazarloo, Gholamreza Miri, Maryam Karimian Bostani
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of improvement and rebuilding of Gorgan  city and the effect of participation on the reconstruction of the city of Gorgan.
Methodology: This survey stufy was conducted in Gorgan city in 2023-2024. The research tool was a questionnaire. A field investigation and study of the comprehensive plans of Gorgan city were used to prepare the criteria and subcritria of the questionnare. The questionnaire was designed with 26 questions based on a 4-point Likert scale. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 70%. The validity of the questionnaire was checked by distributing the questionnaire among 21 university professors. The statistical population was 1040 dilapidated residential units in the city center. Therefore, in this research, the sample size was determined to be 280 households based on the simple random sampling method using Cochran's formula. AHP and SWOT methods were used for data analysis.
Findings: The results showed that participation in the rebuilding of the worn out central fabric of the city of Gorgan has led to spatial adjusting, strengthening of identity and belonging to the central neighborhoods and an obstacle to the horizontal development of the city of Gorgan. The results showed the impact of participation in the rebuilding of the worn-out central fabric of Gorgan city and the spatial arrangement of other fabrics of Gorgan city using AHP model and the dimension of activity (performance) was prioritized.
Conclusion: The results of this research indicated the positive effect of public participation on the reconstruction of the worn-out central fabric of Gorgan city and the spatial arrangement of other urban fabrics.
 
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Solutions for Reducing Vulnerability of Vital Arteries of cities to Floods (Case Study: Bojnourd City)

Mehdi Mobasheri, Golam Reza Miri, Zahra Sharifinia
Aims: Vital arteries or infrastructures are considered the fundamental foundations and frameworks of any society, encompassing all the necessary facilities and utilities for that community. According to the definition of the Canadian Social Security and Emergency Preparedness Organization, vital infrastructures are interconnected networks, facilities, and informational and physical services related to each other. If disrupted or destroyed, they will significantly impact the health, safety, security, and economy of the society. The aim of this research was to assess the flood risk and evaluate the vital arteries of Bojnourd city..
Methodology: This applied research was conducted in 1402 (Solar Hijri year) with a case study of Bojnourd city. The research is descriptive-analytical in terms of research method and applied in terms of purpose. To propose solutions for reducing the vulnerability of city arteries to floods, the Random Forest algorithm was utilized. After conducting studies, 100 flood-prone points and 100 flood-free maps were identified, and 14 effective factors in flooding, including elevation, slope, direction, precipitation, geology, river density, population density, residential density, distance from floodplains, land use, vegetation cover index, topographic land slope index, and moisture index, were used. The importance of each factor was calculated using the information gain ratio.
Results: According to the results, elevation, precipitation, and land use have a significant impact on flooding in Bojnourd city. Additionally, a study of 676 hectares was identified as having the highest flood risk and 852 hectares with the lowest risk. The results indicated that most of the residential areas have a high risk of flooding.
Conclusion: Proper location of flood control structures, considering the geomorphological characteristics of the region along with afforestation and creating suitable vegetation cover in areas damaged due to human activities, can be another solution to reduce the risk.
 
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Examination of the Role of Citizens' Social Self in Urban Sustainable Development (Case Study: District 2 of Tehran City)

Mohammad Reza BOZORGI, Farhad EMAMJOMEH, iraj saiearasi
Aims: One of the reasons for the lack of success in urban sustainable development projects is the neglect of citizens' social self as an influential factor. Because for urban sustainable development, the presence of human factors with competence and social responsibility is a necessity.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1401 in District 2 of Tehran city. Data were collected using the standard Social Self Questionnaire (AUSO) and a researcher-made questionnaire for urban sustainable development. In the process of using the mentioned questionnaires, indigenization was done based on the opinions of university professors and experts. Cluster sampling was used to select urban neighborhoods, and systematic sampling was used to select blocks. Then, 600 individuals were selected from the selected households in the neighborhoods of Tarasht, Kooy-e Nasr, Marzdaran Sharqi, Saadat Abad, and Parvaz using quota sampling to respond to the questionnaire. Structural equation modeling in AMOS software and a two-variable t-test using SPSS 22 were used to examine the relationship between the two variables of citizens' social self and urban sustainable development.
Findings: Urban social self was measured using two variables of competence and social responsibility. According to structural equations, all variable factor loads were significant at the 0.001 level, and a significant relationship between the sustainable development factor and citizens' social self was observed. The t-test indicates a significant relationship between the two variables of competence and social responsibility as explanatory variables of citizens' social self with urban sustainable development (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, a significant relationship and mutual influence between the social self variables of Tehran citizens (competence and social responsibility) with urban sustainable development were observed in District 2.
 
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Measuring and evaluating the status of biophilic city indicators(Case study: Mellat and Kouhsangi parks in Mashhad)

Seyed reza Razavian rad, Barat Ali Khapoor
Aims & Backgrounds: Considering the existing situation of the country in terms of green space، water scarcity، environmental pollution، loss of biodiversity and urban habitats and unstable urban ecosystem، and on the other hand، the needs of urban people in connection with nature، it is necessary to think of appropriate measures to prevent the increasing problems and the threats to the health of city dwellers. The purpose of this study is to measure and evaluate the status of biophilic city indicators in Mellat and Kouhsangi parks of Mashhad.
Methodology: The research method is analytical-geodesic and its nature is practical. The method of data collection was documental and geodesic and questionnary. The statistical population of the research were experts and specialists. In order to complete the questionnaire، a non-probability and purposeful sampling method was used، the number of which is 50 people who، in addition to their specialized field، have sufficient knowledge of the city under study. Data analysis was done with SPSS software.
Findings: The results of evaluating the state of Mashhad city (Kouhsangi and Mellat parks) in terms of biophilic city indicators indicated that the state of Mashhad city is in an unfavorable state in terms of biophilic city indicators. The highest average obtained for the index of social life in relation to Koh Sangi Park was 3.49. Also، the lowest average in the index of institutions and biophilic governance was obtained in connection with Mellat Park at the rate of 2.06
Conclusion: The results of evaluating the state of Mashhad city (Kuhsangi and Mellat parks) in terms of biophilic city indicators indicated that the state of Mashhad city is in an unfavorable state in terms of biophilic city indicators.
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Spatial analysis of important cities in ancient Iran by content analysis Method

Saeid Rezvani Kakhki
Aims & Backgrounds: The history of birth and development of ancient cities in Iran has always been one of the most important and critical parts of urban analysis in Iran. What stages of development did the cities of ancient Iran go through in the same time with formation of Greek city-states, roman cities and middle age planted towns?
Methodology: In the present study, due to the lack of valid first-hand historical sources, the content analysis method has been used by present sources. In this research the importance of cities is scored based on the number of repetitions in the historic sources.
Findings: According to historical sources related to urbanization, the names and geographical locations of 143 cities of ancient Iran have been collected. Then the above cities are classified according to spatial location. Analysis of the above data in statistical models shows a significant difference between the scores of cities in different locations. According to the statistical analysis of the central tendency, cities located in the western regions and western borders of the country have the highest score and importance.
Conclusion: The chronicles of the western cities show the economic and cultural relations of the above cities with Byzantine merchants in importing goods on the one hand and exporting mineral resources and metals and some different goods on the other hand for trade with Iran. of the western border regions have testified to the economic and cultural relations of the above cities with Byzantine merchants in importing goods on the one hand and exporting mineral resources and metals and some different goods on the other hand for trade with Iran. Also, due to water shortage and agricultural constraints, Iran has long been a mediator for trade caravans between the West and East.
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Identifying the Dimensions of Cultural-Historical Capabilities of Tourism and Measuring their Impact on Tourism Development (Case Study: Guilan Province)

Adel Roustaei Hossein Abadi, Ali Gholipour Soleimani, Seyed Mahmood Shabgoomonsef, Narges Del Afrooz
Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the cultural-historical marketing capabilities of tourism in Gilan province. The efforts have been made to discover the dimensions of cultural-historical tourism marketing and the effects of these dimensions on development of tourism in the Gilan province.
Methodology: This study, conducted in 1402, employs a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach with a case study of the city of Gilan. The qualitative part is executed using the grounded theory and the suggested steps of Glaser and Strauss. The statistical population includes all senior managers of the Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Handicrafts Organization of Gilan province, as well as experts in the fields of business and tourism management. Additionally, senior managers of municipal, provincial, and governorate organizations were included, with 10 individuals selected for interviews using the snowball sampling method. In the quantitative section, a survey method was employed, with the statistical population comprising all travel agencies in Gilan province (n=77) and respondents to questionnaires being CEOs and senior tour leaders of these agencies, selected through a census method. Data collection was done through questionnaires, and data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling.
Findings: The results of structural equation modeling indicate that factors related to historical and cultural tourism marketing have a significant and positive impact on destination competitiveness. Destination competitiveness, in turn, has a positive and meaningful effect on destination development. The environmental conditions of the country also have a positive and meaningful impact on destination development. Tourist industry infrastructure has a positive and meaningful effect on destination development. Finally, destination development has a positive and meaningful impact on integrated marketing communications in tourism.
Conclusion: The effective factors on cultural-historical tourism in the city of Gilan include destination competitiveness, historical and cultural tourism marketing, destination development, tourist industry infrastructure, environmental conditions, and integrated marketing communications in tourism.
 
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Performance Evaluation and Effectiveness of Housing Provision Policies with Emphasis on Metropolitan Areas

Razieh Safari Roodbar, Mehdi Modiri, Mohammad Ali Khaliji
Objective:This study aims to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of housing provision policies with emphasis on metropolitan areas, with a case study conducted in Tehran, the capital city.
Methodology: This applied research focuses on the Tehran metropolis and was conducted in 2023. The statistical population for the study is based on the latest report from the Tehran Province Management and Planning Organization in 2023, which indicates a population of 14.287 million people. After calculating the Morgan's formula, a sample size of 384 individuals was determined. Cluster sampling was also employed to categorize the 22 districts of Tehran. Finally, the data collected were analyzed using structural equation modeling to identify causal relationships between variables.
Findings: The variables of effectiveness and efficiency have a significant impact on housing provision policies with path coefficients of 0.305 and 0.329, respectively. Additionally, the variables of housing productivity and access to services have significant effects on effectiveness and efficiency with t-values of 2.862 and 2.874, respectively. However, improving effectiveness and efficiency in housing provision policies has led to the appreciation of housing prices, rental control, financial facilities, and social housing development.
Conclusion: In terms of variables related to effectiveness and efficiency, variables such as access to services and housing diversity have a greater impact, while social stability and housing quality have a lesser influence on efficiency and effectiveness in housing provision policies. Furthermore, sub-indices such as determining appropriate prices based on market needs, setting a maximum rental increase and guaranteeing tenants' rights, providing facilities to housing developers, and improving the performance of the construction system lead to the failure of housing provision policies in metropolitan areas.

 
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Evaluation of Effective Components inthe Construction of the Physical Zone of Entrance Points of the City(Case study of Ardabil city entrances)

Fatemeh Rahmani Shamasbi, Majid Shams, Rahim Sarver
Aims:Today,superficial encounters without a pattern of construction and, in line with that,the physical growth of cities,in the entry space of cities, are among the issues that have caused a lack of legibility,acceptance and individualityin these areas.on the other hand  are nolonger known as the middle space and urban symbol.Therefore,this research was done with the aim of improving the performance of the entrance space of the city and forming its structure optimally.
Methodology:The research is descriptive-analytical and practical interms of purpose,which was investigated in the gates of Ardabil city in1400-1401.The data of this research was using library sources and field observations.In order to complete the required information,a questionnaire related tothe factors affecting the construction of the entrance bodyof the city was extracted and the questions of the questionnaire were prepared accordingly.SPSS software was used for data analysis,and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used for data normalityand Friedman tests were used to rank the influence of components
Findings: Based on the componentdesigned in the research,the variables of small size, middle location, city development, geographical location, and communication location were effective in building the entrance body of the city, respectively. But the noteworthy point in this research is that the body building components were not included in shaping the physical structure of the gates of Ardabil city Therefore this factor has caused an adjustment in shaping the physical form of the city's entry points.
Conclusion:The use of body building components in the entrances of the city has created a real structure for the entrance of the city and to be used as a model in the city's entry pointsAnd the area of ​​these places will no longer be used by urban uses as an identity les spaceBecause by using these components,the entrance body of the city has a coherent and readable structure.
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Analysis of mutual effects of urban planning system and municipal revenue in Iran

ahmad faraji, H. Sarvari, Sanaz Saeidi Mofrad, Ali akbar sarvari
Abstract
Objectives: Any urban development is dependent on providing development costs and at the same time a place to earn new income for municipalities. Therefore, there is a two-way relationship between the urban development planning system and the revenue system of municipalities. But the existing problem is ambiguity in the place and type of impact of urban planning in relation to municipal income. Most studies have been conducted with the aim of explaining sustainable income criteria, sources and methods. The purpose of this article is to explain the active or passive role of urban planning in providing sustainable urban incomes.
Methodology: The research method is qualitative and the method of qualitative content analysis is used. Using a semi-structured interview with experts in the academic and executive field of urban planning who were selected as a snowball, their opinions were obtained regarding the role of urban planning in sustainable income. Then, the obtained texts were analyzed using open and axial coding.
Findings: In the process of data analysis, two methods of open coding and axial coding were used, which were suggested by Strauss and Corbin. which includes crushing data from interviews and notes, creating concepts, categories and putting categories together in a way that clearly justifies the relationship between categories.
Conclusion: The results of this article show that urban planning is effective in obtaining sustainable urban income in two areas of process and executive products. Of course, this is not a direct effect, but by boosting the urban economy, it provides a stable income.
 
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Proposal of Financing the Revenue System of Municipalities and Proposing a Framework (Case Study: Tehran Municipality)

Fatemeh Vossughi , Gholamhossein Mozaffari, Mohammad Hossein Papoli Yazdi , Hossein Hataminejad

Urban sustainable financing is one of the main challenges faced by politicians and urban planners.  Municipalities are concerned with decreased revenues and controlling their costs on one hand and due to the income limitation, the inability to finance many urban projects on the other hand. Developing countries, including Iran, which have inefficient economies, poor tax systems and lack of mechanisms for citizen participation in the provision of urban costs, municipal revenue system, is drawn mainly to the unstable and unhealthy resources. This problem showed itself mainly in Iran after implementation of the 1980 municipal self-sufficiency policy and especially took place in Tehran more seriously than other cities. The two major challenges of Tehran Municipality Revenue System consist of: Unstable and unhealthy municipal revenue system and failure of Tehran’s Municipality to achieve the financial and monetary markets to cover the costs of the construction of urban infrastructure and urban projects. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the structure. For this reason, this paper has proposed two models to solve these two challenges. Model No. 1 will bring stabilization of municipality’s income and revenue system in long term in form of two patterns as "Controlling, reducing and phasing out unsustainable and unhealthy sources of income" and "managing, improving and increasing the role of sustainable revenue sources". Model No. 2 also focuses on providing new ways in order for Tehran Municipality to gain access to the financial and monetary markets. Data was collected for the period of 2008 to 2014 including codes of Tehran Municipality revenues and the amount of revenue generated by each code. We also conducted structured and semi-structured interviews with 30 specializing experts in the research topic. The results showed that during the study period, 58% of Tehran Municipality’s earned income has been achieved from unstable and unhealthy sources and 20% from relatively stable resources. Only 22% of revenue is obtained from healthy and sustainable resources. So, Tehran Municipal Income System is quite unstable and unhealthy in the present situation. The most important approaches presented in model 1 are: Replacing the Renovation Duties, Value Added Tax, Unused Land and wasteland complications with income derived from fines and other unhealthy sources, using green taxes, very high increase in the building density fine rate, reducing the number of permits granted for density, the use of new rigs charges, create clearances database for building crime offenders, getting out the user fees for municipal services, getting the infrastructure networks ramifications fee, improving relations between governments and municipalities, enabling sub-codes which have low income or zero income, using a combination of taxes, considering the municipal tourism revenues and reforming the structure of municipality’s identifying and collecting taxes. Of the most important approaches presented in model 2, may also include the creation of the Metropolitan Development Fund, taking advantage of the potential of domestic banks, using foreign borrowing, direct-entry of Tehran Municipality to the OTC, and using the potential of financing companies. 

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The Impact Of Open Spaces Designing To Create place Attachment In Residential Complexes (Case study: sheshsad dastgah residential complexes in mashhad city)

Masihallah Masoomi, asma mirkhatib

The correlation between humans and place or "Place Attachment" is the basis of satisfying many of the human needs and also giving meaning to human life. Especially attachment to places that are significant for people, the most notable of which is the residence place. The open spaces between residential buildings are the places that link inhabitants with nature and the place of enjoyment in the instant outdoor space of the house. Therefore, there is a need to review and pay particular attention to the design of open spaces in residential complexes. This paper is trying to identify effective factors in organizing open spaces of residential complexes in order to increase sense of place attachment. This is an applied research and in terms of method, it is descriptive/analytical. Data collection has been done through library study, document study, field study and distribution of questionnaires. The statistical population of this study consists of 100 residents of Sheshsad Dastgah residential complex in Mashhad. In order to analyze the descriptive and inferential statistics of the present study, SPSS software and linear regression have been used. The results of the tests indicate the significance of all factors of the independent variable (open spaces in residential complexes) on the dependent variable (sense of attachment). In each of the indices of open space, the components that create attachment, have the highest impact on index of green spaces, and after that children’s playground, pavements, street furniture, roads and finally sitting spaces. The frameworks designed in this research are practical and can provide frameworks for awareness of the designers toward the impact of open spaces of residential complexes on place attachment of the residents.

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on precipitation climatology of Afghanistan

Mehdi Mostarshed
Daily precipitation data from Aphrodite''s resources with a spatial resolution of 0.25*0.25 degree for 57 years have been used to detect the trend of precipitation in Afghanistan. First of all، monthly، seasonally، and yearly maps and regional mean time series calculated. According to the annual map، mean annual precipitation of the country is about 256 mm. There are two precipitation maxima in Afghanistan، one in eastern part and the other one is north- eastern of the country. Throughout the country precipitation maxima occurs in winter. The trend of time series with validity levels of %95 and %99 were examined by the use of Mann Kendall nonparametric. Trend analysis of annual time series shows no trend
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An Investigation on Finding Appropriate Places for Building Public Parking to Decrease City Traffic (Case Study: Central Area of Isfahan)

Mohsen Saghaei, Zohreh Sadeghi, Shirin Tofigh

Though city life and machining living of human beings has some advantage and facilities, yet it has caused a lot of problems as city heavy traffic, along with unanticipated growth of population and unusual development of cities, on the one side and the increasing number of motor vehicles on the other to reduce the heavy traffic in central city areas,building public parking in appropriate place seems very effective,it helps traffic to run smoothly and using better the streets and passages and this seems the only way to solve the city traffic.In this article after surveying and studying the not passages and streets and the existing public parking in the city centre area and also studying the capacity of the existing parking,regarding the value of demands for parking by applying AHP model and by using polygon drawing by Tiesen and Buffering Method, I have defined appropriate place to build parking, consequently, this research shows that parking situated in the city centre of Isfahan do not have any balancer distribution and should be paid attention to building new public parking.

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Analyzing the Role of Environmental Quality in Tourist Attraction to Rural Touristic Destinations (Case Study: Touristic Rural of Small lavasan Rural District)

Hamdollah Sojasi Qidari, Tahere Sadeghloo

In the comparative market of tourist, attempt for tourist from different destinations is a strategically goal. One method of attracting tourist to destination is attention to preferment of destinations quality. Because tourists are search the destinations whit height quality for rest and pleasure. Therefore in this study, the samples had been selected from 16 rural of small Lavasan rural district from Shemiranat County That has been counted as a Tehran tourism destination. This study is based on practical- explorative methodology from aspect of data gathering and identifying the effective dimensions of rural environmental quality in attraction and tourism development. From aspect of community characters description, this study is descriptive and is analytical from aspect of correlation between destination rural quality of environment with tourism development and attraction. In this study, for data gathering had been used of Library resources and field techniques and methods of observation and questionnaire based on indicators derived from the theoretical framework. For sampling had been used of Cochran formula with 0.05 coefficient error rate that estimated sample community were 384 people. Gained result of data analysis show that tourist had satisfaction from rural quality of environment in all of 4 dimension of environmental quality of tourism (with 0.05 rate of meaningful) and after the semantic quality in first place (with an average of 4.18), Experimental – aesthetic Quality (with 3.49 average) lay on second place. Also, Pierson correlation shows that there are meaningful relations among all dimensions of environmental quality of destination and tourist attractions. Result of regression too; show that most effective dimension is related to Semantic quality with 0.645 and most ineffective dimension is related to ecological quality with 0.241, on tourist attraction to rural tourist destinations. Based on the result of study, it could be said that destinations environmental quality in different aspect is effective on tourist attraction and its improving could be useful for rural in comparative market of tourist attracting and tourist choosing.

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Zoning of Earthquakes Occurred in Fars Province during 1900 to 2010 and Comparison it by Former Researches Findings

Dr Siavosh Shayan , GholamReza Zare
Zonings of seismicity of Fars province in Iran and comparison its’ finding to other researches results is aim of this paper. We used Statistical method for analyzing recorded earthquakes in study area during 110 years (1900 – 2010)، using GIS methods for this zoning. By using USGS seismic data of the region and fault maps، Excel software and ArcGIS، we prepare a seismic risk map of study area. Findings show that during study period we have 1636 earthquakes by 2.5 t0 6.9 magnitude. In the study area about 70 percent of earthquakes were lower than 4.5 magnitudes; maximum of earthquake was for Lar and Arsanjan counties. Earthquake zoning shows that 60 percent of the Fars Province area in inside High level seismicity zone. Comparison between these researches by other researches findings shows that in our zoning، there are vaster areas inside low risk areas، but in past researches there was not low risk zones at all or there were limited areas. Based on this zoning most of population density centers ( such as Shiraz and Lar )، and western parts of the province are inside High level risk of Earth quakes ، but in past researches eastern part of province was inside high level risk zone. It seems that this zoning have higher accuracy، too.
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Impacts of Boundaries Geometry on the Security of Western Boundaries of Iran

Sirus Ahmadi Nohadani , Arezo Alanchari Chavdorchi
International boundaries have been one of the preoccupations of Political Geography since their appearances. The shape and type of boundaries are an important issue in national security and for the offensive or defensive position of countries. Studies have been done and more attention has been paid to the boundaries geometry (convex, concave, directness) in recent decades. Also this study wants to verify the impacts of boundaries geometry on national security. This descriptive and analytical article studies the impact of western boundaries geometry of Iran on national security. Results of research show that concave boundaries play a defensive role and convex boundaries play an offensive one. thus the convex boundaries have significant security sensitivity and attract more human, economic and military resources to preserve their security in order to guarantee the national security.
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An Analyzing of the Physical- Spatial Growth Pattern of Tehran Metropolis

Mahmood Ghadiry, Farzaneh Dasta

The growth pattern of a city is the most critical matters of the recent century. So, recognition of the spatial growth pattern of main cities of regions and countries such as Tehran metropolis is necessary for drawing up suitable policies and achieving sustainable development. In this regard, in the framework of sustainable development and urban smart growth theories, three hypotheses offered about the quality of spatial growth pattern of the Tehran metropolis and then were evaluated in the framework of the analytical-descriptive research method. In this framework, for testing the first hypothesis, the Holdren model was used. For testing the second hypothesis, Gini and Entropy's indexes were used, and for testing the third hypothesis, Moran, Geary and General G indexes were used. The necessary data was collect by librarian method. The results of testing the first hypothesis showed that despite compact and regular growth of the Tehran metropolis during 1335-1355, this city have had a sprawl growth of 75 percent during 1355-1365. But since then this procedure has changed to compact city. In the case of the second hypothesis, the results despite un-confirming this hypothesis, showed that though there are imbalance in population and employment distribution, there are not tend to its increasing. Moreover the results in confirming third hypothesis showed that the Tehran metropolis have had a random development pattern tending to Clustered pattern by forming a hot-spot in its south- south eastern part and a cold spot in its north- north western part. 

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Study of Spatial Justice in the Distribution of Services, with an Emphasis on Urban Management (Case study: the neighborhoods of nineteen district of Tehran)

Hossein Yaghfoori, sajad ghasemi, narges ghasemi

The beginnings of social justice rooted in spatial and environmental justice. Since the civil service is considered as a public good, the estimation and the correct positioning is in the area of urban management, so it cannot deprived some parts of the society. Spatial justice as the fair distribution of urban services and facilities is one of the justice society approaches to achieve a harmonious society and social justice. Lack of proper distribution services make injustice and dissatisfaction among citizens of their location and city managers. The research method is descriptive-analytic. In order to analyze the distribution of municipal services in 19 District of Tehran, Vikor model was used. The results show that the services are not distributed in 19 district of Tehran, so that in terms of spatial equity of presented indicators, North Shariati neighborhood with a score of 0.042 has the highest level of the facilities and services and Shahid Kazemi neighborhood with a score of 1, has the lowest enjoyment of facilities and services of 19 district

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Assessment and Analysis of Sustainability Status in Metropolises, Case Study: All Ten Regions of Tabriz

Alireza Soleimani, Ali Majnouni Toutakhane, Ali Reza Soleimani, Ahmad Aftab

Urban development based on the principles of sustainable development has been one of the main concepts of urbanization in the last decade. The term sustainable urban development means providing the necessary grounds for the balanced and efficient utilization of urban resources so that all citizens can benefit from urban economic, social and environmental infrastructure in accordance with their needs. The aim of this research is to investigate the sustainability status in Tabriz metropolis. This is a descriptive-analytic research. The statistical population of this research is the inhabitants of all ten regions of Tabriz, and 500 individuals over 15 years old are selected as sample size using simple random sampling by the classified method. The validity of the questionnaire was verified by experts and the reliability of the different parts of the questionnaire obtained the score of 0.876 to 0.881 using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Fuzzy TOPSIS Method is used to evaluate the variables in order to assess the sustainability, the model of barometer sustainability is used. Also to infer and testability of data the statistical tests such as Anova test, T test and Tukey and Scheffe tests are used. Drawing of maps related to the stability of Tabriz urban areas has been done using GIS software. According to the results, region 8 is the most sustainable region and region 3 is the most unstable region. Also, all 10 regions of Tabriz with sustainability value of 0.591 are in medium sustainability status. The status of the regions in terms of human welfare and ecosystem well-being was also equal to 0.548 and 0.515 respectively. The results of T and Anova tests also showed that according to the sustainability barometric results, physical, social, economic and environmental dimensions are of the most importance respectively. Tukey and Scheffe tests also demonstrated the stability gap between different dimensions of sustainability. Finally, according to the findings of the research and taking into account the situation of the tens of ten regions of Tabriz, practical suggestions are presented in accordance with different dimensions of sustainable urban development.

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Presentation of a Strategic Model for Achieving Urban Sustainable Development in Mashhad Metropolis

Sona Bikdeli , Sirous Shafaghi , Fatemeh Vossughi
The subject of many urban studies is sustainable development and ideal approach of urban planners and designers in designing sustainable cities is mainly toward a better life and reduction of environmental crises. This article seeks to answer these questions What are the most important issues and problems of instability in the metropolis of Mashhad? What are the most important strategies for achieving a sustainable urban development model in Mashhad metropolis? The purpose of this study is to provide a strategic model for achieving sustainable urban development in Mashhad metropolis. To this end, the concepts and principles of sustainable urban development have been studied. Then, a variety of theories related to the development of urban sustainability including the city boom, compact city and smart city were studied, analyzed and summarized using conceptual analysis method. Finally, the initial conceptual model of the research was presented after reviewing the national documents and identifying the principles of planning. The model points out that in order to achieve sustainable urban development in Mashhad metropolis, the emphasis on a system management dimension with four dimensions of sustainability including physical, social, economic and environmental dimensions is necessary. In a quantitative evaluation of the conceptual model of the research using confirmatory factor analysis, the high path coefficient of environmental sustainability suggests that the most important urban instability problem in Mashhad metropolis is environmental instability. On the other hand, based on the views of the urban management team, presenting a comprehensive and participatory strategy model is the best way to achieve sustainable urban development in the metropolis of Mashhad.
  
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Strategic Planning of Medical Tourism with an Emphasis on Religious Tourism in Mashhad City

Ali Hajinejad, Aliakbar Anabestani, Mohammad Safarian

Medical tourism is a branch of health tourism that has grown considerably in many parts of the world now days. Mashhad city with regard to  the Holy Shrine, More than 300 thousand foreign tourists per year, more than 31 public and private hospitals and specialties of cardiology, ophthalmology, pediatrics and. ..,which is one of the centers of attracting tourists and religious - health tourism in Iran. cost of medical services in these hospitals are 75% less than those of European and American hospitals in terms of the quality of similar services they offer and this could be a big advantage for developing such activities in the region. The research methodology has been a descriptive-analytical one which employs a SWOT analysis model in exploring the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats which are considered as internal and external factors critical for treatment tourism in this city. This paper Prepared by using the library documents and the field study and interviews with experts, has been considered as descriptive - analytical. The results show that infrastructure and expertise in Mashhad by the Holy Shrine are the main strengths of this research. And the other hand non-governmental organizations, investment and support and develop the bilateral relations between the Middle East countries are the main opportunities in this research. In conclusion the strengths and opportunities for developing such activities outweigh the weaknesses and threats.

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Geography and Place Identity in the Age of Globalization

Dr Abolfazl Ghanbari
The purpose of this paper is to describe the concept of neoliberalism، globalization. Also، the effects of these concepts on space and geographical identity and also by focusing on globalization effects on geography science have been addressed. Finally by criticizing the present way that expands neoliberalism ideology is sought to be able to maintain human being dignity in of economic، social and cultural developments of countries and prevails social، spatial and geographical justice as a dominant ideology in the world. The research methodology is descriptive-analytic. By studying the field of neoliberalism and globalization area، we can come to this conclusion that neoliberalism and globalization has deep and significant effects on geography that can be pointed out such as: increasing spatial analysis in geography، especially analyzing spatial inequality، regionalism in combination to reinforcing ethnical identity seeking، destroying penetration and power of social institutes، decreasing west political tradition in studying geography، return of religious radicalism and etc. The influence of geography on the evolution and transformation of the digital information age، the studies in this field has been done by geographers، shows that geography is not only adapted to the evolution، that even to see clearly and simply realistic view of some scholars، the phenomenon of globalization، the new stand and attitudes towards scientific field، also provides insight as to other sciences and an invitation to look again at the issues that face. Geographers with researches their thoughts and reflections on issues of the age، geography could turn back the edge of the scene and it made a respectable and reasonable range. So geography maximizes increasingly its own importance due to augmentation of researches in the field of spatial analysis.
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A Study of Effect of Geographical Factors on Societal Security (Case Study: Kerman Province)

Hadi Veicy

Geographical spaces and political units affected from its location and natural environment and with the surrounding environment have interaction. It seems that security, especially societal security as the most fundamental concept of as social life affected by the location and generally geographical factors. This study sought to examine the impact of geographical factors on societal security in Kerman province. Therefore, this study performed by systematic approach and integrated regional approach to issues of security and descriptive method. Data needed for research collected by library method and from United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Statistics Center of Iran and Kerman Province’s Applied Research Office of police commander. In regional scale referred to drug trafficking and terrorism and in local scale (province) indicated to indicators of social insecurity such as armed robbery, robbery rape, kidnapping and murder, and the amount of drugs seized. The results show that societal security of Kerman province affected by the location of the resources of transnational, sub-national and inter-provincial threats. Also, it influenced by topographical conditions and the remoteness and proximity to centers of crisis. Townships in the western half of the province than half East of the state of societal security have better.

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Analysis of Passive Defense Considerations in Urban Infrastructure With an Emphasis on Water Infrastructure

Fatemeh Bakhshi Shadmehri, Seyyed Hadi Zarghani , Omid Ali Kharzmi

These days, cities are the most important places for human life, hence we have faced the concentration of population, capital, and infrastructure in cities. This concentration not only has a lot of economic, social, political and environmental ramifications, but also has made cities into strategic military and terrorist attack targets. Past experiences and the present experience of wars in countries like Iraq, Kosovo and Yemen, shows that urban centers and the critical infrastructure of the cities, such as water, electricity and energy infrastructure are the main and primary targets in case of an invasion.Passive defense is a series of principles and precautions relating to defense and security which can assure stability and survival of a system. Accordingly, this paper deploys an analytical method to review the vulnerability level of various parts of water infrastructure in case of a potential military or terrorist attack. The results of the study show that, despite the vital role of water in human life in the cities,  different aspects of water infrastructure, including transport, storage, refining, administration and distribution are very vulnerable in case of a potential military or terrorist attack. Especially considering the fact that the protection and security of this infrastructure are very weak.Undoubtedly considering defense and security precautions in location, design, construction and management of these centers is a very important factor in minimizing the risks of a potential military or terrorist attack

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The Role of Vibrant Markets in Organizing Tehran

Hossein Mokhtari Hashi, Golnaz Naseroleslami, Amin Moradi

The market status in this context consists of the measures that affect the performance of financial units. Measures that are beyond the control of the managers of these units. The financial market is one of the defining factors of the financial status of each country, based on which the economical situation of each country could be assessed. Transparency and competitiveness are the factors that lead to a healthy market, foreign and domestic investment in industry, success of productive financial activities and elimination of counterproductive activities. A major reason for the recession that has overshadowed the financial market in recent years, is the lack of interest to invest in industrial sections due to discouraging statistics in this context. This not only directs capital into non-productive sections, but also seriously affects employment in all regions of the country. Which leads to a lot of unemployed people who engage in non-productive activities. The high rate of immigration to Tehran is due to the fact that large amounts of capital are invested in Tehran instead of being invested in productive sections throughout the country. This situation has directly and indirectly affected Tehran and it makes the efforts for organizing Tehran futile. The present study is seeking to analyze the effect of improving financial markets on the vibrancy of industrial units throughout the country with a descriptive and analytical approach. It also seeks to analyze and elaborate the relationship between satisfactory financial markets and decreased immigration rate to Tehran and balanced financial prosperity in various regions of the country as well as relieving the pressure on Tehran and making it easier to organize

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Determining Vulnerable Applications and Criteria for Spatial Locating With Emphasis on Unnatural Crises with AHP Method (Case Study: Sabzevar)

Mohamdreza Akhvan Abdollahian, Masuod Taghvaei, Hamidreza Varesi

With the rapid increase in world population it is observed that most of this population is concentrated in cities. Nowadays about half of the world's population live in cities and it is estimated that from 2.2 billion people that will be added to earth’s population in the next 30 years, 2.1 billion will be living in cities. And 2 billion of these people are expected to be born in developing countries (UNDP Annual Report, 2003), which is one of the most significant security issues. So understanding passive defense and the factors that shape it have a strong impact on the security of the country and minimizing the potential damages to the country. Since our country Iran has unique political circumstances and geographical location, in the last three decades it has always been threatened from different aspects which shows the importance of passive defense in urban planning of different cities. Among the outstanding issues that are important in passive defense and crisis management is the location of strategic or vulnerable facilities. The aim of this research is to achieve recognition of applications that could be affected in times of crisis and to identify criteria of user location affected in times of crisis from the perspective of spatial-physical indicators (effective in positioning applications) for preparation and development of projects based on rules and regulations, and this has been done for the city of Sabzevar. Therefore, the literature and concepts related to passive defense, crisis management and mapping applications are analyzed, and then the appropriate definition of vulnerable facilities has been presented, as well as guidelines for locating these types of applications for protection in the time of crisis. The next step is to review the documents and maps of Sabzevar to prioritize the indicators identified by order of importance. At the end with the help of AHP-GIS method optimized sites have been identified for these centers. The results suggest that, given the circumstances and characteristics of Sabzevar compatibility standards, comfort, performance, utility, health and safety standards in locating vulnerable facilities are the most important.

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Explanation of urban branding components with an emphasis on its economic aspects, case study: Mashhad metropolis

Ensieh Lezgi, Qadir Siami
One of the strategies of urban management in order to advance in the competitive world is planning to achieve sustainable urban branding for the city, which in addition to introducing the image of the city, is able to attract audiences. Tourism is the most important factor in achieving the economic benefits of urban branding. The metropolis of Mashhad is one of the goals of urban tourism with pilgrimage and religious tourism throughout the country, and it is called as the spiritual capital of the country. This city is the first destination of domestic tourism trips. The purpose of this study is to investigate urban branding components in Mashhad metropolitan with emphasis on tourism in order to achieve its economic goals. To the purpose, firstly, the components and indexes of urban branding with an emphasis on the economic dimension were identified and by using the views of  200citizens, pilgrims and experts were evaluated. Then, by applying statistical analyzes (analysis test and Friedman nonparametric test), has been studied and prioritized in Mashhad metropolis. The results show that among the six components of this research, the unique features of city have the highest score and international standing of the city has the lowest score. this type of research is called analytical- descriptive.
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Investigation Citizen Attitudes on Foreign Immigrants Resident in Mashhad

Fatemeh Vossughi, mohammad reza Mohseni

Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the most important countries, accepting immigrants and refugees from around the world. The immigrants are mostly from the neighboring countries.These immigrants had to leave their countries due tosecurity issues and difficult economic and social conditions. Most of these immigrants are Afghans.The greatest wave of immigration from Afghanistan to Iran startedwith Soviet attacksince 1978.
Mashhad the center of Khorasan-Razavi province sharing the eastern borders with this country,is one of the most important centers accept these immigrants. The population of Mashhad is about 3 million. And about4 decades after the first waves of Afghans' refugees, several million immigrants are periodically or permanently reside there. According to statistics provided by the authorities in 2012 about 150 thousand Afghan immigrants legally live in Mashhad, and have been estimated to be as many as illegal immigrants are living in this city.During these years, the facilities forimmigrants in the various fields are provided, including education, insurance, training, professional skills, etc.
The immigrants entering Iran has created many changes inthe economic, social, educational and cultural both for the immigrants and the host society.
 Alongside with the given facilities and changes taken place during decades in Iran, there have been different positive or negative views on the acceptance and residence of these immigrants. What is important is, despite the large amount of these immigrants mostly from Afghanistan and their long -term residence in Iran, how welcomed are they in the host society? How the immigrants and the host society’s people interaction is? What is the people's views over acceptance or reject these immigrants?
This research aims to find Mashhad’s citizens attitude as an important center accepting foreign migrants and connection of these attitudes with factors such as gender, education, income, job variety, location in the city and ethnicity.
Research Methodology
The methodology of this research is based on survey. The needed data have been gathered using the questionnaire. The assessment of these variables has been done using Likert and Bougardos scale. According to the aim research,the dependent variable analyzed by independent variables, is the respondentsattitudes over foreign immigrants. These attitudes have been analyzed due to economic, sanitation, traffic, education, housing and social harms.
Result
Results show that the most negative attitudes are about social harms variable. According to respondents view, the migrants impact on education variableis not positive either. The housing indicator has less negative views compared to education and shows 57.6% of respondents as negative attitude. But the respondents view on economic factors is more positive. In total, 32% of the respondents view on foreign migrants is negative.60% isneither positive nor negative and 8% of the view is positive.This research also analyses the connection between citizen’s view and independent indicators. These indicators are built upon economic, social and personal features of respondents such as gender, marital status, education, residence (on foreign migrants’ existence levels), age, nationality, income, religion and relations form with foreign migrants.
Results show that indicators such as gender, age, job and residence of respondents on number of foreign migrants and access level is meaningfully related to respondents views over foreign migrants.
Men have more negative attitudes over the issue than women and it shows the gender and views on foreign migrants are related.Relation between respondents’ age and their views shows that the older the respondents are, the more negative their views are. Relation between respondent’s job and their views shows that the industrial jobs, business and governmental jobs have mostly negative views.The respondents city zone (on welfarelevels), influences their views. Meaning that the more their residence has lower levels on sustainability, the more negative their views on foreign migrants are.The respondents city zone (on the number of foreign migrants) influences their views too. Meaning the people living in areas with a large number of foreign migrants has a more negative view than the people with fewer migrants in their neighborhood. The type and level of relationship with foreign migrants also influences their views. The more connected are the citizens to foreign migrants, the less negative views they have.Items such as marital status, education, income, religion, and ethnicity have no concern with Mashhad citizen attitudes

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The Impact of Geopolitical Interests of Iran and Saudi Arabia on Regional Challenges in Southwest Asia

Mohammad Reza Hafeznia , Ebrahim Roumina
Competition among countries in a region is a widespread phenomenon. However, the actions of the rival countries depend on the nature and number of matters of dispute and their approaches to resolving these disputes. Two countries that are struggling for hegemony in a region could not possibly have a peaceful relationship. The relationship between these two countries will be in a state of perpetual competition, marked by seeking allies and rebel groups from other countries in the region in order to confront one another. Today, Iran and Saudi Arabia's mutual competition in southwest Asia has shaped tensions. This rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia has spread to other countries in the region as well. This research is a descriptive and analytical study in order to analyze the geopolitical interests of Iran and Saudi Arabia in Southwest Asia. The data is collected through library research and documents. The results of this study show that the actions of the two countries of Iran and Saudi Arabia in southwest Asia are influenced by various factors such as historical and cultural reasons, ideological competition, conflicting political structure, religious rivalry, ethnic and religious groups with mutual interests in the rival country and political interventions of world powers. These factors play an important role in creation and continuation of competition and conflict between the two countries. And due to serious dependence of major parts of the world on natural resources of the two countries, the escalation of the crisis between Iran and Saudi Arabia will create a global challenge
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