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:: Volume 35, Issue 2 (2020) ::
geores 2020, 35(2): 0-0 Back to browse issues page
The Typology of Environmental Crimes in Natural Geography of Iran
Hossein Rabani1, Askar Jalalian *2, Mansoor Pournouri3
1- Department of Environmental Law, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2- Department of Law, Payame Noor University, Southern Tehran, Tehran, Iran , agalalian@gmail.com
3- Department of Law, Faculty of Law, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (685 Views)
Aims & Backgrounds: The aim of this study is the typology of environmental crimes in the natural geography of Iran.
Methodology: In the first, a preliminary list of various environmental crimes was prepared. For this purpose, a semi-constructed interview method was used. Sample size was 169 people. In the next step, using expert opinions and the method of pairwise comparison, environmental crimes of weighting and their importance coefficient were determined. Then, by inquiring from the legal offices of the relevant organizations, the statistics of violations and environmental crimes by the provinces of the country between the years 1395 to 1398 were obtained.
Findings: Environmental crimes are classified into 3 major factors, 8 micro-factors and 23 metering categories. The highest crime rates were "ecosystem degradation", "environmental pollution" and "biodegradation", respectively. The highest percentage of petty crimes was "water pollution" with 58 percent, followed by "soil pollution" with 26 percent, and finally "air pollution" with 16 percent. In crimes related to "ecosystem destruction"; the highest percentage was "destruction of forests and pastures" with 48%, followed by "destruction of wetlands and ecosystems" with 35%, and finally, "destruction of mountains and plains" with 17%. In the case of crimes related to "harvesting resources and effects on biodiversity"; the highest percentage of "damage to wildlife" was 57% and the lowest rate was "damage to habitat" with 43%. The highest crime rates are "land use change" (9.4%) and the lowest are "medicinal plant harvests" (0.5%). Mazandaran province with 6674 cases of environmental crimes is at the top of the list of provinces in the country and Khorasan Razavi province with 232 crimes.
Conclusion: Given the multiplicity and diversity of environmental crimes in the country and the increasing trend of crime, it is necessary to take more effective measures in this regard.
Keywords: Criminal Typology, environmental crime, natural geography, ecosystem degradation
     
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: natural geography
Received: 2020/03/11 | Accepted: 2020/06/10 | Published: 2020/06/10
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rabani H, jalalian A, pournouri M. The Typology of Environmental Crimes in Natural Geography of Iran. geores. 2020; 35 (2)
URL: http://georesearch.ir/article-1-860-en.html


Volume 35, Issue 2 (2020) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه تحقیقات جغرافیایی Geographical Researches Quarterly Journal
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